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day care health risks

What is the information for this topic? 
Many young children spend a good portion of their lives in daycare. There are many benefits to day care. It can provide enriching educational and social experiences for the child. A recent study of 1,000 children over 6 years of age compared those who had attended day care before they were six months old with those who had not. The children who had attended day care as infants had only half the risk of developing asthma as the group who had not attended day care in their first 6 months of life.

All young children are prone to acquiring infections, but children in day care face special risks. The group setting exposes a child to larger numbers of other children (and their infections) than the home setting.

What are some of the health risks for children in day care?

Because they are in a group setting, children in day care are exposed to many kinds of infectious diseases. Many of these are quite contagious.

Children in day care tend to get more upper respiratory infections, such as colds and flu's. They also have a high number of ear infections, or otitis, which often stem from respiratory ailments. 

Infection of the intestinal tract, called Gastroenteritis, is often caused by viruses. Gastroenteritis usually causes vomiting or diarrhoea or both. These illnesses are very contagious. However, they rarely cause long-term problems. gastrointestinal infections are spread by the faecal-oral route. This means a person catches it by swallowing germs found in faeces. This type of infection is common among young children because they may not wash their hands carefully after using the toilet.

A less common intestinal disease sometimes found among children in day care is giardiasis. It is caused by a parasite called Giardia lamdia. The symptoms of giardiasis include diarrhoea, stomach cramps, and flatulence. Young children can easily pass this disease to others.

Children in day care are also at greater risk of coming in contact with hepatitis A. This form of viral hepatitis is also spread by the faecal-oral route. Hepatitis A is commonly passed through contaminated food. Food can become tainted with the virus when a carrier of the disease handles food after using the toilet without washing his or her hands.

Other common but not serious health problems occur in day care. These include head lice and scabies infestations, which involves mites infecting the skin.

What are some of the safety issues for children in day care?

Safety issues can also be a concern for children in day care. The child's level of risk is related to the ratio of adult caretakers to children in the day care setting. Ideally, there should be 1 adult for every 4 children between the ages of 2 and 3. For children ages 3 to 6, the ratio should be 1 to 8. Another safety concern is the location of the day care facility. A centre on a busy street or in an unsafe part of town may pose safety risks for children.

Parents should visit a day care facility before enrolling their child. This will enable them to assess the staff and the setting. Parents can also get a sense of the staff's attitude toward health and safety issues, and look for signs of child abuse. The staff should treat the children with warmth and gentleness. At the same time, they should provide enough supervision and structure to keep the child safe and comfortable. Daycare centres should ask for written documentation of a child's immunisations.

What questions should parents ask?

Parents should ask about whether the centre is accredited. They should also ask about guidelines for limiting the spread of illness. These provisions may include requiring staff to have up-to-date immunisations including those for hepatitis A. Also, policies should restrict the children with symptoms of infection from attending day care.

Reviewer: eknowhow Medical Review Panel
Editor: Dr John Hearne
Last Updated: 6/1/2005
Potential conflict of interest information for reviewers available on request

This website and article is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this website is intended to be used as medical advice and it is not intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professional's advice.  All Health and any associated parties do not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on the information.

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