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Alternative Names 
confusional state, mental dysfunction

Confusion is an abnormal mental condition or state of mind. A person who is confused has trouble understanding the environment and may react or respond inappropriately to it.

What is going on in the body? 
Confusion is often a sign of an underlying problem or illness. The causes range from mild to serious. Confusion may come on suddenly or may occur gradually over time. Many causes of confusion are reversible.

What other signs and symptoms are associated with this symptom? 
People who are confused may exhibit the following signs and symptoms:
  • They don't know who they are or where they are.
  • They don't know what time it is or even what year it is.
  • They are drowsy.
  • They are not able to concentrate or pay attention.
  • They misunderstand the things they see or hear.
  • They show poor judgment.
  • They have problems with co-ordination or movement.
  • They may be restless or agitated.
  • They have trouble remembering recent events.
Other symptoms are often related to the cause of the confusion.

What are the causes and risks of the symptom? 
There are many possible causes of confusion, including: There are many other causes of confusion. Sometimes a cause cannot be found.

What can be done to prevent the symptom? 
Prevention is related to the cause of the confusion. For example, avoiding certain drugs can prevent the confusion that can be caused by them. Wearing a helmet when riding a bike or motorcycle, and following sports safety guidelines for children, adolescents, and adults, can help prevent head injuries. However, many causes cannot be prevented.

How is the symptom diagnosed? 
When someone is confused, the doctor will try to determine the cause. A medical history and physical examination is done first. In some cases, this may be all that is needed to figure out the cause. Further testing is often needed, however.

Blood tests are commonly done to help check for salt or hormone imbalances, liver disease, and many other conditions. Urine testing can help rule out an infection or kidney problem. A chest X-ray can be done to look for lung conditions, such as pneumonia. Further tests may be needed in some cases. For example, a cranial CT scan can be done to look for a stroke or brain tumour.

What are the long-term effects of the symptom? 
Long-term effects are related to the cause of the confusion. For example, confusion caused by an infection often goes away once the person gets over the infection. In this setting, there are often no long-term effects. An individual with cancer or chronic liver disease often dies from these conditions. In some people, confusion may get worse over time and become permanent, such as in Alzheimer's disease, alcoholism, or AIDS.

What are the risks to others? 
Confusion itself is not contagious and poses no risk to others. If confusion is the result of an infection, the infection may be contagious.

What are the treatments for the symptom? 
Treatment is directed at the cause of the confusion.
  • A person who develops confusion while in the hospital may simply need someone to reorient them to the time and place.
  • An individual with low blood sugar may need to drink a sweet drink or eat a snack.
  • A person who formerly used drugs usually gets better when the drug is stopped.
  • An individual with an infection may need antibiotics.
  • A person with kidney failure may need dialysis, a procedure to filter the blood when the kidneys don't work.
  • Someone with cancer may need chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
What are the side effects of the treatments? 
All medications have possible side effects. For example, antibiotics may cause allergic reactions or stomach upset. Surgery carries a risk of bleeding, infection, and allergic reaction to the anaesthesia.

What happens after treatment for the symptom? 
In many cases, confusion goes away when the cause is treated. In other cases, confusion may be a sign of serious disease. Some causes of confusion, for example, stroke and Alzheimer's disease, may cause permanent brain damage and problems with brain function.

How is the symptom monitored? 
A confused person should not be left alone. Other monitoring depends on the underlying cause. For example, those who have had a stroke often need close monitoring in an intensive care unit. Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the doctor.

Reviewer: HealthAnswers Australia Medical Review Panel
Editor: Dr David Taylor, Chief Medical Officer HealthAnswers Australia
Last Updated: 1/10/2001
Potential conflict of interest information for reviewers available on request

This website and article is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this website is intended to be used as medical advice and it is not intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professional's advice.  All Health and any associated parties do not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on the information.


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