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- Alcohol is a class of chemical compounds containing hydroxyl, or oxygen-hydrogen, groups.
appropriate diet for age
- Nutritional needs and developmental skills change as a child grows. An age-appropriate diet is one that provides the nutritional requirements and matches the developmental capabilities of a child. An age-appropriate diet provides the nutrients a child needs to grow and develop. It also includes foods that a child likes and can eat easily. This makes meals and snacks more pleasant.
- Antioxidants are specific vitamins, minerals, and enzymes. They help protect your body from certain health problems. Antioxidants help protect against cancer, artery and heart disease, arthritis, and cataracts. Beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and selenium are the antioxidants that have been studied the most.
balanced diet
- A balanced diet is one that includes the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) for all the essential nutrients including proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. A balanced diet supports normal growth and development and good health.
- Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. It is well known for its important role in maintaining strong teeth and bones. Most calcium, 99%, is found in the teeth and bones. The remaining 1% is found in the body's fluids and cells. Calcium requires vitamin D for absorption. It also works closely with magnesium, zinc, fluoride and phosphorous. Calcium is also important for proper heart function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. Complex processes control the amount of calcium in the blood. When there is too little of it in the blood, hormones pull it from the bones to meet the body's demands.
calcium and adolescents
- Calcium is a mineral. It plays an essential role in building healthy teeth and bones. Unfortunately, most adolescents do not eat enough high-calcium foods. They are at risk of developing osteoporosis when they get older. Infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods for achieving peak bone mass. The skeleton increases in mass 3-fold in adolescence.
breast milk
- A woman's body produces breast milk after the birth of an infant. After delivery of the baby, changes in hormonal patterns of the mother change rapidly. This triggers the release of hormones that cause the body to produce breast milk.
caffeine in the diet
- Caffeine occurs naturally in foods and beverages. It is known to be a potent stimulant of the central nervous system (CNS).
celiac disease-nutrition
- Coeliac disease is a chronic digestive disorder that affects the small intestine. It can begin at any stage of life, from infancy through adulthood. The disease varies in severity from person to person. People with coeliac disease have an intolerance or a reaction to gliadin, which is a component of gluten. Gluten and gliadin are found in several common grains.
cow's milk
- Cow's milk provides the body with energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, and other nutrients. It is an important part of a healthy diet for children older than 12 months and adults. Medical and nutrition experts highly recommend breast-feeding for an infant's first year of life. Commercially prepared infant formulas are usually cow's milk-based or soy-based. Commercially prepared infant formulas do not contain factors that help protect babies from allergies and common illnesses, though infant formulas are nutritionally similar to breast milk.
cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations
- Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease. CF occurs in 1 in 2500 births in Australia and is the most common genetic disease in Caucasian Australians. CF prevents the body from absorbing enough nutrients. This makes it difficult for people with CF to meet increased nutrient needs. As a result, people with CF may need to eat an enriched diet with more kilojoules and take extra vitamins and enzymes.
- Carbohydrates are compounds composed of sugars. They come from the starchy part of plant foods. They easily covert to sugar in the body. For this reason, carbohydrates are considered "fast fuel."
diet and calories
- Food supplies kilojoules which are units of energy. The body burns kilojoules to stay alive and to move. Kilojoules are a way of measuring the potential energy in foods. They also measure the amount of energy the body uses. There are only 3 nutrients that provide kilojoules in food: fat, protein, and carbohydrate. These 3 nutrients make up foods in all of the major food groups. Some foods have 1, 2 or all 3 of these nutrients. Even though it is not a nutrient, alcohol has kilojoules too.
- There are several categories of vegetarians. These include: vegan or strict vegetarian: eats no animal foods of any kind ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs, but no dairy foods or other animal foods lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy foods but no other animal foods or eggs lacto-ovo-vegetarian: eats dairy foods and eggs, but no other animal foods pesco-vegetarian: eats dairy foods, eggs, and fish, but no other animal foods semi-vegetarian: mostly follows a vegetarian diet but eats meat, poultry and fish occasionally How does the nutrient affect the body? 
artificial colors
artificial flavors
vitamin A
- Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin meaning it is able to be dissolved in fat. Vitamin A is carried throughout the body by fat. The body can store fat-soluble vitamins. Getting too much can be harmful.
- Fibre is the part of plant foods that cannot be digested by humans. Its chemical properties make it a carbohydrate. However, because it cannot be digested, it provides very little kilojoules to the diet.
genetically engineered foods
- Genetically engineered foods refer to foods in which the genetic code is scientifically altered. This produces foods with a desired trait. This process is also known as bioengineering foods. Foods are bioengineered to meet many needs. Some of these include: developing crops that can grow in varied climates. This makes certain food crops available throughout the year and across geographical regions. creating crops that are more resistant to adverse conditions. Foods can be made to withstand attacks by bugs or moulds or severe weather conditions such as drought. developing foods that have more consumer appeal such as improved nutrition, longer shelf-life and better taste. How does the nutrient affect the body? 
blood lipids
- Cholesterol is a transport molecule. It packages and shuttles fatty substances around the body. Blood cholesterol levels are influenced by two factors. One is the food a person eats. The second is how much cholesterol his or her body makes. Cholesterol is made by the body in the liver. So not only do people get cholesterol from food but also from the body.
blood or serum cholesterol
body mass index and children
body mass index, BMI
vitamin B1
- Thiamin, or Vitamin B1, is a water-soluble vitamin. It was the first vitamin to be discovered. Thiamin is one of eight members of the vitamin B complex. The complex includes: vitamins B2, niacin, B6, B12, folate, biotin, and pantothenic acid. Because thiamin is water-soluble, any extra is passed in the urine. Thiamin is needed each day for good health.
celiac sprue
chloride in the diet
- Chloride is a mineral. Chloride, along with sodium and potassium, are known as the electrolyte minerals. They are in all body fluids and help regulate fluids in and out of the body's cells. Chloride, along with sodium, is found concentrated in the fluid outside of cells.
vitamin B12
- Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. It can dissolve in water. It is one of the B-complex vitamins. The B complex includes: B1 B2 B6 pantothenic acid folic acid niacin biotin Cobalamin is the general name for vitamin B12.
chromium chloride
- Chromium is a trace mineral. It is needed in very small amounts. Chromium supplementation may be useful in a number of health conditions.
chromium in the diet
chromium picolinate
chromium polynicotinate
vitamin B2
- Riboflavin, or Vitamin B2, is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of the eight B vitamins. The B vitamin complex includes vitamins B1, niacin, B6, B12, folate, biotin, and pantothenic acid.
complex carbohydrates
- Copper is an essential trace mineral. It is needed by the body in very small amounts. Copper is found in all tissues of the body, but mostly in the brain, heart, kidney and liver.
cystic fibrosis, nutritional considerations
diet for age
diet for cystic fibrosis
diet for diabetes
- Diabetes mellitus, often called diabetes, is a condition that affects the body's ability to regulate the level of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main form of sugar in the body.
dietary cholesterol
fat-free milk
fatty acids
folic acid
food additives
safe food handling
- Safe food handling practices limit the risk of foodborne illnesses or food poisoning. Culprits of foodborne illness include produce, cooked and raw meat, eggs, and canned foods.
food sanitation and hygiene
formula feeding
frozen versus fresh produce
genetically engineered foods
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
gluten-sensitive enteropathy
HDL cholesterol
human milk
hydrogenated vegetable oil
infant formulas
insoluble fiber
pantothenic acid and biotin
- Pantothenic acid and biotin are water-soluble vitamins. They are two of the eight B vitamins. The B vitamin complex includes vitamins B1, niacin, B6, B12, folate, biotin, and pantothenic acid.
vitamin B3
- Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of eight members of the B complex of vitamins. These include vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body.
LDL cholesterol
low protein diet
low sodium diet
low-fat diet and children
low-fat milk
low-protein diet
low-sodium diet
vitamin B6
- Vitamin B6 is a vitamin that can be dissolved in water. It is one of the B-complex vitamins.
unsaturated fat
vitamin C
- Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin. This means that it can be dissolved in water. Water-soluble vitamins are carried throughout the body in the bloodstream. They are, for the most part, not stored in the body. The body uses what it needs and the rest is passed in the urine.
nicotinic acid
non-fat milk
nontropical sprue
partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
plant estrogens
polyunsaturated fat
protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM)
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
vitamin D
- Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is able to be dissolved in fat. Vitamin D is carried throughout the body by fat. The body can store fat-soluble vitamins. Getting too much can be harmful. Vitamin D can be produced in the body, as well as, obtained from the diet.
Quetelet's index
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
reduced fat milk
renal diet
retinoic acid
vitamin E
- Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin. This means that it is dissolved in fat. Vitamin E attaches to fat. This is how it is carried through the body. This is one reason why moderate amounts of fat are needed in the diet. The body can store fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E has strong antioxidant properties. The vitamin may protect against heart disease and cancer. Its protective role has been widely studied. Vitamin E is part of a group of substances called tocopherols. Each group has different potencies.
safe food handling
school lunch program
simple carbohydrates
diet for kidney disease
- A diet for kidney disease helps makes up for what the kidneys cannot do because they are not working properly. This diet may limit: protein, a nutrient containing nitrogen fluid sodium, a part of salt potassium, a nutrient important for muscle functioning phosphorous, a mineralHow does the nutrient affect the body?
soluble fiber
sports nutrition
strict vegetarian or vegan
sugar substitutes
total cholesterol
trans fats
unsaturated fat
vitamin A
vitamin B1
vitamin B12
vitamin B2
vitamin B3
vitamin B6
vitamin C
vitamin D
vitamin E
vitamin K
vitamin K
- Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is able to be dissolved in fat. Vitamin K is carried throughout the body by fat. The body needs a small amount of fat in the diet for absorption. The body can store fat-soluble vitamins. Phytomenadione is the natural form of vitamin K. Menadione is the synthetic form of vitamin K. Menaquinone is the form that is produced in the body. Vitamin K is made in the body, as well as obtained from the diet.
whole milk
dietary fat
- Dietary fat is the fat that is found in food. Fat is one of three main nutrients in food. The other two are carbohydrate and protein. There are three types of natural fats found in foods. These are mono-unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fats. Most foods contain all three fats in different amounts. The body can use all three types of fat.
diet for liver disease
- A diet for liver disease provides the vitamins and minerals needed to stay healthy. It also limits nutrients that will cause further liver damage.
- Fluoride is a trace mineral. It is present in the body in a very small amount. The average body contains about two and a half grams of fluoride. Most fluoride is found in the bones and teeth.
food jags and fussy eaters
- Food jags are periods in which children begin to refuse foods that they previously liked. Food jags can also occur when children request a particular food at every meal. This eating pattern is commonly seen in children between the ages of 2 and 6 years.
- Folacin is also known as folic acid and folate. It is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of the eight members of the B complex. These include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, biotin, and pantothenic acid
fast foods
- The term "fast food" generally refers to the type of restaurants that sell quick, inexpensive take-away food, but even supermarkets now offer quick and easy food choices. Fast food is often laden with extra kilojoules, saturated fat and sodium. It is possible, however, for quick meals to be nutritious. With the growing interest in a healthy diet, vendors of fast food are starting to provide more healthy choices.
- Minerals are inorganic, or carbon-free nutrients. Minerals are needed in small amounts to support human life.
fruits and vegetables
fruits and vegetables - What food source is the nutrient found in? - Fruits and vegetables are good sources of many vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and other plant chemicals. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables has many advantages. -...
iron in diet
- Iron is a trace mineral and is an essential nutrient. Iron is found in small amounts in every cell of the body. The body needs only small amounts. Iron is widely available in many foods.
- Malnutrition is an imbalance or deficiency of nutrients. This can come from not eating enough healthy foods or by using up too many nutrients through activities. Malnutrition can be identified by using body weight, body fat, protein stores and laboratory values.
nutrition and athletic performance
nutrition and athletic performance - Alternative Names - sports nutrition - Information - Good nutrition should be a part of every athlete's training program. Those who enjoy sports for fun or competition need good nutrition. The body...
normal growth and development
- There are 4 stages of growth and development. These are infancy, pre-school, school age and adolescence.
magnesium in diet
- Magnesium is a major mineral that is involved in more than 300 enzyme reactions in the body.
nutrition and travelling with children
- Travelling with children can be fun and exciting. It also can present challenges. Travelling can disrupt schedules, routines and familiar activities. Unfamiliar foods are also part of travel.
- Phosphorous is an essential mineral, and the second most abundant mineral in the body. Eighty percent of phosphorous is found in the bones and teeth. The other 20 percent works in body functions. It is found in every cell of the body.
salad and nutrients
- From a dietary standpoint, salads come in many forms. Just because it is called a salad does not mean that it is healthy and nutritious. It is possible to create a healthy meal from a salad bar. But it is also easy to make unhealthy choices and select many items high in kilojoules and fat.
saturated fat
- Australians consume too much fat in their diet. On average, Australians get 35-37 percent of their kilojoules from fat. High-fat diets, especially saturated fats, are linked to high blood cholesterol levels and heart disease. High-fat diets can also increase risk for obesity and cancer. The Dietary Guidelines for Australians recommend "eating a diet low in fat, and in particular, low in saturated fat".
selenium in diet
- Selenium is an essential mineral that works as part of an important antioxidant enzyme. The body only needs a very small amount of selenium. The amount is measured in micrograms (mcg). The highest concentrations of selenium in the body are found in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen.
- Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts to maintain life. Vitamins are called essential because they cannot be made by the human body. They must be obtained from foods or supplements.
- Potassium is one of the electrolyte minerals. It is important in maintaining the body's acid-base and fluid balance. Potassium works very closely with sodium and chloride, which are also electrolyte minerals. These three minerals are in all fluids of the body. Potassium is found in fluids within cells. The other two are found in fluids outside of cells.
- Sodium is an electrolyte mineral. It helps maintain a fluid and acid-base balance in the body.
- Triglycerides are the common type of fat found in food and in the body. They make up 95% of dietary fat. They contain saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats in different mixtures. Triglycerides occur naturally in foods. The liver also makes them when excess kilojoules are present. They are transported and stored in the body's fat tissue.
vitamin E and heart disease
- Vitamin E, also known as tocopherol, is a fat-soluble vitamin. One of the roles fat plays in the diet is to transport fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E is carried through the body attached to fat. The body stores vitamin E in fat deposits and in the liver.
water in diet
- People can live for weeks without food. Without water, people will die within days. The human body is 50% to 70% water.
frozen foods versus fresh
- Certain fruits and vegetables can be frozen before retail sale to maintain flavour and prevent spoiling. Many types of fruits and vegetables come in both fresh and frozen forms. Examples include: peas corn carrots spinach mixed vegetables vegetable stir-fry mixes blueberries strawberries raspberriesInformation
low-fat diet and children
- Diets high in fat, especially saturated fat, are linked to high blood cholesterol levels and heart disease. High-fat diets can also increase risk for obesity and cancer.
- Phytoestrogens are oestrogens contained in plants. They have a chemical structure similar to the human hormone oestrogen. They have a weak oestrogen effect when eaten. The most commonly studied are the isoflavones, found in soybeans and other legumes. The word soyfood refers to any food products made from soybeans. Soyfoods provide significant amounts of isoflavones.
protein in diet
- Protein is made up of smaller units called amino acids. There are 20 different amino acids. The body can only make 13 of them; the other 9 must come from food. These 9 are called "essential" amino acids.
Trans fats
- Trans fats are formed by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil. This process is used to make vegetable oil more solid. An example of this is cooking and more solid margarine.
zinc in the diet
- Zinc is an essential trace mineral. It has many functions in the body. Also, it is a component of several enzymes.
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