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cancer of the cervix
- The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. Cancer of the cervix is a malignant tumour on the cervix. Pre-cancerous changes in the cells on the top layer of the cervix are an early sign that cervical cancer may develop.
cervical biopsy
- A cervical biopsy involves the removal of a small sample of tissue from the cervix. The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus and contains the opening from the uterus to the vagina. The tissue sample is called a biopsy.
Burkitt's lymphoma
- Burkitt's lymphoma is a form of cancer that primarily affects children living in certain areas of Africa. Burkitt's lymphoma is also found in North America, but it is rare. Adults can also be affected. The disease also affects 8 in every 100,000 children in Papua New Guinea.
colorectal cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer affects the lining of the large intestine and rectum.
blood in the stools
- Blood in the stools means that blood from somewhere in the body is being excreted in the stool, or bowel movement.
radiation enteritis
- Radiation enteritis is a complication of radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis. Radiation therapy is sometimes used to treat certain diseases, especially cancers. In addition to killing cancer deep in the body, it damages the healthy tissue around it, like the bowels. The damage may occur at the time of treatment or take many years to develop.
bowel obstruction
- Bowel obstruction describes a blockage in the bowels.
adenocarcinoma of the small intestine
- Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine is a form of cancer that occurs in the part of the intestine that begins at the stomach. It is a rare form of cancer. This type of cancer makes up only a very small proportion of cancers in the digestive system.
cervical dysplasia
- Cervical dysplasia is a condition in which a woman has abnormal changes in the top layer of cells of her cervix. The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. The changes are local and have not spread more deeply into the cervix or to other sites in the body.
- Choriocarcinoma is a rare form of cancer in tissue in the reproductive system. This type of cancer usually affects women, but also includes a very rare type of testicular cancer in men.
thyroid cancer
- The thyroid gland produces chemicals that regulate how the body uses energy. Thyroid cancer develops in the tissue of the thyroid gland. It is not very common. Death from thyroid cancer is unusual, especially in young people. Thyroid cancer is found twice as often in women.
- Colposcopy involves the use of a special lighted microscope to magnify the surface of the cervix during a pelvic examination. The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus and contains the opening from the uterus to the vagina.
adrenal biopsy
- There are two adrenal glands in the body, one on top of each kidney. These glands produce a variety of hormones that affect almost all of the body's functions. An adrenal biopsy involves taking a sample of tissue, usually from only one adrenal gland.
- The ileum is the last part of the small intestine, or small bowel, which connects to the large bowel. Treatment for some bowel diseases requires interruption or removal of part or all of the bowel. If this is done, a new way for stool to leave the body must be created. When a surgeon creates an artificial opening in the bowel for stool to pass through, this is called an ostomy. If the opening is created in the ileum, the procedure is called an ileostomy.
kidney removal
- Kidney removal, or nephrectomy, is a surgery to remove a diseased or damaged kidney.
biopsy -- detailed
- A biopsy is the removal of a sample of tissue from the body. The sample is then examined under a microscope. Biopsies are used to diagnose many medical conditions, from skin problems to cancer.
cytology exam of urine
- A cytology examination of urine is an examination of the cells that appear in the urine. This test can detect and help diagnose some urinary tract diseases. The urinary tract contains the kidneys, bladder, and the tubes that connect these organs to the outside of the body.
fair skin cancer risks
- People who have pale skin tone and who freckle have what is called fair skin. They may also have blond, light brown, or red hair and blue, grey or green eyes. People with fair skin do not develop a dark tan. In fact, they may sunburn after relatively brief sun exposure. All these factors add up to an increased risk for developing skin cancer.
skin cancer protection
- Sunscreens and sunblocks are chemical or physical products used to protect the skin from sun damage which can lead to skin cancer, such as melanoma. Sunscreen products provide various degrees of protection against the sun's ultraviolet rays. Sunblock products prevent all ultraviolight from entering the skin. They often contain zinc oxide or titanium dioxide, and are used for high-risk areas such as the nose, lips, and shoulders.Chemical sunscreens and sunblocks protect the skin by absorbing visible and invisible, or ultraviolet, sunrays. Examples include: lotions gels creams lip balms spraysPhysical sunscreens and sunblocks protect the skin by reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and blocking sunrays. Examples of physical sunscreens include: clothing, such as shirts and pants and newer fabrics designed to block the sun hats sunglasses zinc creamWhat is the information for this topic?
- This test measures the amount of the enzyme aldolase in the blood. Aldolase is involved in the breakdown of sugars to generate energy in cells. It is very concentrated in muscle tissue. The aldolase test can help detect muscle damage, since damaged muscles can release aldolase into the bloodstream.
albumin test
- This test measures the levels of albumin in the blood. Albumin is an important blood protein that is made by the liver and excreted by the kidneys.
- In this procedure, a flexible fibre optic instrument called a colonoscope is inserted into the large intestine, or colon. The colonoscope permits the doctor to view the details of the inner surface of the colon. This helps detect any abnormal tissues or growths. The doctor can also sample or remove abnormal growths through the colonoscope.
- A gastrostomy is surgery to insert a tube through the abdomen into the stomach. This tube is most often used for feeding. It may also be used to keep the stomach empty.
Hodgkin's lymphoma
hip joint replacement
- Hip joint replacement is a surgical procedure to replace the hip joint. The new joint is artificial, and has two parts. The first part is the hip's socket, called the acetabulum. This is a cup-shaped bone in the pelvis. The second part is the "ball" or head of the femur, also called the thighbone.
fruits and vegetables
fruits and vegetables - What food source is the nutrient found in? - Fruits and vegetables are good sources of many vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and other plant chemicals. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables has many advantages. -...
cancer of the uterus
colostomy care
oesophageal cancer
gallium scan
ileostomy care
lymph node biopsy
mesothelioma, malignant
molar pregnancy
oral cancer
salivary gland tumors
thyroid nodule fine needle biopsy
thyroid scan
tongue biopsy
flank pain
human papillomavirus infection in females
salad and nutrients
- From a dietary standpoint, salads come in many forms. Just because it is called a salad does not mean that it is healthy and nutritious. It is possible to create a healthy meal from a salad bar. But it is also easy to make unhealthy choices and select many items high in kilojoules and fat.
Pap smear
selenium in diet
- Selenium is an essential mineral that works as part of an important antioxidant enzyme. The body only needs a very small amount of selenium. The amount is measured in micrograms (mcg). The highest concentrations of selenium in the body are found in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen.
serum pregnancy test
vaginal bleeding between periods
The Cancer Connection
The Cancer Connection - The preserved food you love to snack on can potentially put you at risk of cancer of the respiratory tract. You can protect yourself with a diet full of fresh goodness. - Yashna Harjani - Dietician - Cancer is...
stomach cancer
carcinoma in situ
- Carcinoma in situ describes a cancer in the very earliest stage. At this point, the cancer is quite small and has not invaded the tissues around it.
Useful Links
Australian Women's Health Network (AWHN) - National Breast Cancer Centre - WINGS - Breast cancer support site - Cervical Screening Campaign - Cervical Cancer & Pap Smear Info Line: 13 15 56
tobacco use: smoking and smokeless tobacco
multiple myeloma
- Multiple myeloma occurs when a specialised white cell, known as a plasma cell, becomes cancerous.
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of a type of white blood cell in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system drains fluid from tissue and returns it to the blood. It plays an important role in the body's defence against infection.
ovarian cancer
- Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that develops in a woman's ovary. It usually occurs in women older than 50 years. Any cell in the ovary can undergo a cancerous change. The most common form of ovarian cancer comes from the outer covering of the ovary, not the eggs. Treatment for this cancer can be very successful. The survival rate of women with ovarian cancer has improved over the last several years.
- Hyperalimentation is a procedure in which nutrients and vitamins are given to a person in liquid form through a vein. It is only given to someone who cannot get nutrients from food.
- Hospice is a special form of care for people who have terminal diseases. The goal is to give support to those near death, instead of trying to cure their diseases. Hospice care focuses on the ill person and the family, not the disease.
weight loss
- Weight loss is due to a person burning more kilojoules, or energy, than he or she takes in.
metyrapone test
- The metyrapone test evaluates how the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, or ACTH. ACTH is made in the pituitary gland and travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands. There it triggers the release of another hormone called cortisol.
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