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abnormal grieving
- Abnormal grieving occurs when the normally painful emotional reaction is prolonged, delayed, or otherwise unresolved. It is considered abnormal for a person not to grieve at all after a major loss. Grief is also considered abnormal when it is accompanied by thoughts of suicide or psychotic symptoms like a loss of contact with reality.
abortion, septic
- A septic abortion occurs when an infection develops inside a pregnant woman's uterus. If not treated, it can spread well beyond the uterus and even to the bloodstream.
- Achondroplasia is an inherited disorder that causes short stature.
acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is cancer of the lymph cells, a type of white blood cell. While ALL is known as the childhood form of leukaemia, 20% of the people who develop the disease are adults.
cancer of the cervix
- The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. Cancer of the cervix is a malignant tumour on the cervix. Pre-cancerous changes in the cells on the top layer of the cervix are an early sign that cervical cancer may develop.
cervical polyp
- A cervical polyp is a small growth on or near the surface of the cervix. The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. Cervical polyps are usually benign, or noncancerous, and rarely cause symptoms.
abdominal aortic aneurysm
- Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the term for enlargement and weakening of a portion of the abdominal aorta.
- Albinism refers to a group of disorders that are present at birth. It is characterised by a decrease or lack of colour in the skin, hair, and eyes.
allergic conjunctivitis
- Allergic conjunctivitis is swelling and redness of the membrane that lines the eye. It is caused by exposure to foreign matter. The affected part of the eye is called the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane layer that covers the white part of the eye.
abnormal bleeding
- Bleeding disorders include a wide range of medical problems that lead to poor blood clotting and excessive bleeding.
macular degeneration
- The macula is the centre of the retina at the back of the eye. The images we see are sent to the macula and the rest of the retina. The macula has been likened to the film of a camera, which stimulates the brain so that we "see" the image in our mind. When the macula breaks down in a condition known as macular degeneration, decreased vision results.
abruptio placenta
- Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the inner ear, usually due to an infection.
accidental hemorrhage
acetabular dysplasia
- This condition refers to malformation of the hip joint during foetal development. In this condition, the head of the thighbone or femur, does not sit properly in the socket of the pelvis.
acanthosis nigricans
- Acanthosis nigricans is a disease that causes dark, thick areas on the skin. The areas affected are spread out and the skin is velvety. It is most common in the armpits and other body folds. The disease may be inherited or caused by problems with how the body uses insulin, obesity, some drugs, and cancer.
achondroplastic dwarfism
- There are two types of colour blindness: achromatopsia (ack-row-ma-top- see-ah), in which you cannot see colour. dyschromatopsia (dis-crow-ma-top-see-ah), in which you can see some colour. Since some colours are seen, the term "colour defective" rather than "colour blindness" may be better suited for this condition. What is going on in the body? 
mad cow disease
- Mad cow disease, also called bovine spongiform encephalopathy, causes decay in the brain. It is known to affect cows and it is thought to cause disease in people, too.
acne vulgaris
- An allergy is an immune response by the body to certain stimuli in the environment that are normally harmless.
haematoma of the nasal septum
- A haematoma is a collection of blood that occurs in tissue that separates 2 similar structures. A haematoma of the nasal septum refers to blood in the wall separating the 2 nostrils of the nose.
Achilles tendinitis
- Achilles tendinitis is an inflammation of the Achilles tendon, sometimes called the heel cord, which connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.
acquired qualitative platelet disorder
acquired sensitivity reaction
acute adrenal insufficiency
- Haemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that affects the way the body handles iron. It causes iron to accumulate in the organs of affected people. The excessive iron causes the symptoms of the disorder.
Paget's disease
- Paget's disease is a condition that causes alternating cycles of bone destruction and bone reconstruction. This disease tends to slowly get worse over time.
acute confusion
- Delirium is caused by many medical conditions and describes the confused state of mind if a person may be unable to maintain attention and whose thinking may be disorganised.
haemolytic uremic syndrome
- Haemolytic uremic syndrome is a poorly understood condition that affects the blood and kidneys. It usually follows an infection that has caused diarrhoea.
acute delirium
acute gouty arthritis
acute hypoadrenalism
acute idiopathic polyneuritis
acute inflammatory polyneuropathy
acute laryngotracheobronchitis
- Croup is an infection of the tissues around the vocal cords in young children. It has a characteristic cough and can cause difficulty breathing.
- Acne is a common skin condition in which the skin pores become clogged. This causes pimples and inflamed infected abscesses, or collections of pus. Acne may occur on a person's face, neck, chest, and back. Eighty percent (80%) of all teenagers get acne.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia
acute myocardial infarction
acute nonlymphocytic leukemia
acute or chronic sinusitis
salivary duct stones
- Salivary duct stones are accumulations of calcium and phosphate crystals in the duct of either the parotid, submandibular, or sublingual glands. The parotid glands lie just behind the angle of the jaw, in front of the ears. The submandibular and sublingual glands are deep in the floor of the mouth.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder, also called OCD, is a type of anxiety disorder. A person who has OCD has recurring or repeated obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are thoughts, ideas, or images that persist in the mind. Compulsions are mental acts or behaviours that are carried out repeatedly. These obsessions and compulsions are severe enough to be time-consuming. They may also cause a fair amount of distress or impairment. The impairment can interfere with everyday activities.
acute otitis media
acute otitis media
- Rabies is a fatal nervous system infection that is caused by the rabies virus.
Addison's disease
- Addison's disease occurs when the adrenal glands in the body are destroyed and no longer able to produce certain hormones needed for life.
painful foot joints
- Joints can become painful for a number of reasons. The reasons can range from an injury to a specific joint to an overall condition, such as arthritis, that affects many joints in the body.
acquired platelet function disorder
- An acquired platelet function disorder refers to an abnormality in the clotting ability of the platelets which develops sometime after birth. Platelets are a type of cell found in the blood. Various disorders can affect the normal function of platelets, which is primarily to help blood clot.
adenoidal hypertrophy
adolescent conduct disorder
adult respiratory distress syndrome
- Malaria is an infection marked by fever and shaking chills. Four different species of the Plasmodium parasite cause malaria.
Male infertility
- Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to become pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected sex. Male infertility means the male is unable to impregnate the female because of male factors.
age spots
- Acromegaly is excessive growth. It is caused by the oversecretion of growth hormone. The condition results in the gradual enlargement of the bones in the face, jaw, hands, feet, and skull.
acute adrenal crisis
- An acute adrenal crisis occurs when the adrenal glands suddenly do not work properly.
alcohol addiction
alcohol dependence
alcoholic fatty liver
alcoholic hepatitis
alcoholic liver disease
allergic contact dermatitis
- Contact dermatitis is a patch of red, itchy, flaky skin. It occurs when someone has a reaction after coming into contact with something that sensitised or irritates his or her skin.
allergic reactions
allergic rhinosinusitis
altitude anoxia
altitude sickness
acute bronchitis
- Bronchi are the branches of the main windpipe that carry oxygen into the lungs. Acute bronchitis is inflammation, or swelling, of one or more bronchi.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
anal ulcer
analgesic-induced nephropathy
anaphylactic shock
anembryonic pregnancy
- A blighted ovum refers to a failure of the fertilised egg to develop in the first few weeks of pregnancy.
anorectal abscess
anorexia nervosa
pancreatic cancer
- Pancreatic cancer occurs when cells within the pancreas undergo changes that make the cells grow and divide uncontrollably. Pancreatic cancer is not a common cancer. When it occurs, it is likely to cause death.
anterior tibial tendinitis
gallbladder disease
- Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder.
antibiotic-associated colitis
- Diarrhoea caused by antibiotics involves the passage of frequent, loose stools along with a variety of other symptoms.
antibiotic-associated diarrhea
antisocial behavior, recurring
aortic coarctation
- The aorta is the main artery of the body and carries blood away from the heart. Coarctation of the aorta refers to an abnormal narrowing in the aorta that is present at birth, causing congenital heart disease.
aortic dissection
aortic regurgitation
acute interstitial nephritis
- Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a condition in which there is damage to the tissue surrounding the filtering unit of the kidney. The damage may result in a sudden decline in the kidney function.
apnea spell
apparent life-threatening event
- Pancreatitis is an inflammation or an infection of the pancreas. It may be acute or chronic. Acute pancreatitis means that symptoms develop suddenly. Chronic pancreatitis is a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas.
tardive dyskinesia
- Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder that occurs as a side effect of treatment with certain medications.
acute mountain sickness
- Acute mountain sickness is a disorder caused by lack of oxygen at high altitudes. It can affect any person who climbs too rapidly above an elevation of around 2500 metres. Symptoms are more likely to occur if a person climbs from sea level to above 2500 metres. It can also occur at lower altitudes.
arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) involves the narrowing of the coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart. The arteries narrow as fatty deposits build up along the inner wall of the artery, a condition known as arteriosclerosis. Coronary artery disease is a progressive disease, which increases the risk of heart attack and sudden death.
acute myelogenous leukaemia
- Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a kind of cancer that occurs in a specialised white blood cell called a myelocyte. The cancerous change occurs in the bone marrow, where blood cells are made. This change causes many cancerous myelocytes to grow and take over the bone marrow. These cancerous cells also travel throughout the body, a process known as metastasis. They then interfere with the normal function of many parts of the body.
Aspergillus infection
anal fissure
- An anal fissure is a tear in the internal lining of the anus. This area is called the anal mucosa. This break in the anal lining often re-opens during bowel movements. The result is bright red blood and intense pain.
atherosclerotic renal vascular disease
athlete's foot
- Athlete's foot is a fungal infection that affects the top layer of the skin.
atopic conjunctivitis
atopic eczema
haemophilia A
- Haemophilia A is an inherited condition. It results from a lack of an important blood clotting protein.
attention deficit disorder
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
haemophilia B
- Haemophilia B is an inherited bleeding disorder affecting mostly men. This disease interferes with the blood's ability to clot.
auricular flutter
autistic disorder
autoimmune disorders
- Ichthyosis is a group of inherited disorders characterised by excessively scaly and dry skin.
autonomic hyperreflexia
AV block
baby bottle caries
- Baby bottle tooth decay is the progressive breakdown of teeth in an infant or toddler. The decay usually begins in the front teeth and moves back to the molars.
baby bottle mouth
baby bottle tooth decay
back pain and stress
- Low back pain refers to pain or discomfort in the lower back. It is often caused by stress.
back strain and stress
backaches and stress
acute otitis media
- Acute otitis media is a bacterial or viral infection, or inflammation of the middle ear.
bandy leg
- Bowleg refers to the outward curving, or bowing, of the legs. It is due to a deformity of the knees.
barbiturate overdose
Barrett's esophagus
- The oesophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Barrett's oesophagus is a condition that occurs when column-shaped cells replace the normally flat and scale like cells of the lower oesophagus. This change in the cells is probably caused by stomach acids splashing up into the oesophagus reflux over a long period of time.
Bartholin duct cyst
- The Bartholin's glands are located on both sides of the vaginal opening. They secrete fluids that help lubricate the vagina. If the gland gets blocked for any reason, a round swelling called a cyst may develop.
Bartholin gland cyst
Bartholin's cyst
basal cell cancer
- Basal cell cancer occurs when skin cells undergo cancerous changes.
basal cell carcinoma
panic disorder
- A panic disorder is characterised by repeated panic attacks, or episodes of intense fear that strike without warning.
- Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with an imagined or minor flaw in personal appearance. The affected person looks normal to others. BDD distresses the person, and may impair social or work functioning.
Bell's palsy
- Bell's palsy is weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Rarely it can affect both sides of the face.
benign ear cyst
- A benign ear growth is any abnormal growth on the ear that does not represent cancer. It can be caused by many different conditions.
benign ear growth
benign intracranial hypertension
- Benign intracranail hypertension is a condition that causes increased intracranial pressure, or pressure within the brain, for unknown reasons. Symptoms are produced that are sometimes mistaken for a brain tumour.
benign prostatic hypertrophy
Berger's disease
- Berger's disease is a disorder of unknown cause that results in kidney damage, and may lead to kidney failure.
Berger's nephropathy
- Gallstones are stones that form in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are crystals of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy substance used for many body processes. Gallstones may also be crystals of calcium and bilirubin. Bilirubin is a by-product formed when red blood cells break down.
- Bulimia is a chronic eating disorder. Individuals secretly eat large amounts of food in a short period. This is called binge eating. Then, to prevent weight gain, they self-induce vomiting, or use laxatives or diuretics, fast or perform rigorous exercise. There are often feelings of guilt, depression or self-disgust association with bulimia.
bipolar affective disorder
bipolar disorder
birth, emergency
- An emergency delivery happens when unplanned events cause a woman to give birth at home or on the way to the hospital. Emergency deliveries should not be confused with intentional home deliveries.
black toe
bladder calculi
- Bladder stones are large pieces of minerals formed and retained in the urinary bladder.
bladder cancer
- Bladder cancer is a form of cancer affecting the internal lining of the bladder. Bladder cancer can be superficial or invasive.
bladder incontinence
ulcerative colitis
- Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bowel with ulceration and episodes of bloody diarrhoea. It may occur at any age and in both sexes, but it is most common between the ages of 15 and 40.
bladder stones
bleeding diatheses
bleeding disorders
blighted ovum
blocked tear duct
- A blocked tear duct is an obstruction or complete scarring of the nasolacrimal (nay-zoh-la-cream-al) duct in the nose. This causes persistent tearing and production of discharge from the eye. Many people think a blocked tear duct means that tears cannot be released down onto the eye, resulting in dry eyes. The term really means a blockage of the drainage system for tears in the nose. This produces too many tears, a condition called epiphora (ip-if-or-ah).
bloodshot eyes
- The conjunctiva is the clear mucous membrane layer covering the white portion of the eye. It extends under the eyelid where it turns back and becomes the underneath mucous membrane lining of the upper and lower lids. When this membrane becomes inflamed, it is called conjunctivitis.
body dysmorphic disorder
obstructive sleep apnoea
- Apnoea is defined as a pause in breathing that lasts 10 seconds or more. Obstructive sleep apnoea occurs when tissue in the upper airways blocks the breathing passages. The blockage may come from a collapsed uvula, which is the soft tissue that hangs down at the back of the palate, large tonsils, or other excess tissue. When the muscles relax during sleep, these structures can sink into the air passage and interrupt breathing. The person suffering from this condition continues to try to breathe during the periods when the airways are blocked. As a result of the disturbed breathing, too little oxygen gets into the bloodstream, a condition known as hypoxaemia. This problem corrects itself as soon as normal breathing is restored.
borderline personality disorder
- Borderline personality disorder is a serious psychiatric condition. People with a borderline personality are unstable in their self-image, moods, behaviour, and relationships with others.
salivary gland tumours
- The salivary gland is one of three pairs of glands that secrete saliva. Saliva helps the body break down food for digestion. Salivary gland tumours are growths in the tissues of these glands.
brain aneurysm
- A cerebral aneurysm is an abnormal swelling of the wall of a blood vessel inside the brain.
haemorrhagic stroke
- A stroke is the death of brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get enough blood and oxygen. Haemorrhagic stroke is a serious condition that occurs when blood seeps into the brain tissue from a damaged blood vessel.
salmonella infections
- Salmonella (sal-ma-nel-ah) infections are caused by a bacterium.
- Salpingitis is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which are long, thin ducts that connect the uterus to the ovaries.
brain herniation
- A brain herniation occurs when the brain pushes downward inside the skull. Part of the brain tissue is displaced down through the skull opening that leads into the neck.
brain neoplasm
- Brain tumours are abnormal masses of cells that arise in the brain. They may press on nearby brain structures and cause damage to the brain tissue.
brain tumor
facial swelling
- Facial swelling refers to enlargement of any area of the face. The face includes the eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks and chin.
breast abscess
- Mastitis is an inflammation and infection of the breast.
breast infection
breast infection
brittle nails
- Brittle nails are fingernails that peel and break easily.
broken collarbone
- A collarbone fracture is a break that occurs in the collarbone, also called the clavicle. The collarbone is the bone that connects the breastbone, or sternum, to the shoulder blade.
- Haemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels in and around the anus and lower rectum. They are classified as internal, meaning inside the anus, or external, meaning outside the anus. They may be present for years without causing any problems. Straining to have a bowel movement may cause swelling and pressure, leading to a haemorrhoid flare-up. Haemorrhoids are very common in men and women. They most often begin between the ages of 20 and 50.
bulimia nervosa
bundle branch block
- Arthritis is the name for irritation in a joint, which often becomes swollen, painful, and stiff.
Burkitt's lymphoma
- Burkitt's lymphoma is a form of cancer that primarily affects children living in certain areas of Africa. Burkitt's lymphoma is also found in North America, but it is rare. Adults can also be affected. The disease also affects 8 in every 100,000 children in Papua New Guinea.
caisson disease
- Decompression sickness takes place when sudden pressure changes in the environment cause gases that are dissolved in the blood and tissues to form bubbles of gas. These bubbles then block the flow of blood and can produce pain and other symptoms, even death.
- A cancer is a group of abnormal cells, known as a tumour, that grows uncontrollably. Cancerous tumours invade and destroy surrounding tissue. Not all tumours are cancerous. Benign tumours, which are not cancerous, do not invade and destroy tissue. However, a benign tumour may grow very large. Cancerous tumours may shed cancer cells that spread to other parts of the body, which is called a metastasis. Benign tumours do not spread in this way.
cancer of the bladder
cancer of the endometrium
- Cancer of the uterus occurs in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. It is sometimes called endometrial cancer. Cancer of the uterus is the most frequent and most curable type of cancer that affects a woman's reproductive system. Among women, it is the fourth most common site for cancer after the breast, lung, and bowel.
obstructive uropathy
- Obstructive uropathy is a blockage of the normal flow of urine somewhere along the urinary tract.
cancer of the liver
- Cancer of the liver occurs when cells in the liver undergo changes that make the cells grow and divide uncontrollably. This is called primary liver cancer. Cancer from other places in the body can also spread to the liver. Cancer that has spread to the liver is called liver metastasis.
cancer of the throat and larynx
- Cancer in the throat occurs in the passages from the neck to the rest of the body. This includes the voice box, or larynx, and the areas behind the oral cavity, known as the pharynx.
cancer of the uterus
cancers affecting the bone
- Cancer of the bone occurs when cells in the bone undergo changes that make the cell grow and divide uncontrollably. This is called primary bone cancer. Cancer can also affect the bone when a cancer spreads from another part of the body to the bones. This is called bone metastasis. Many types of cancer can spread to the bone.
- Asthma is a common lung disease. In a person with asthma, the airways narrow as a result of inflammation within the airway wall, when exposed to different factors, or triggers. As such, individuals with asthma develop symptoms of widespread and variable airflow obstruction. These events can often reverse spontaneously or with appropriate medication.
- Haemosiderosis is a rare, often fatal, condition in which iron builds up in the lungs. The iron is in the form of haemosiderin, a pigment in blood. Haemosiderosis results from bleeding into the lungs, also known as pulmonary haemorrhage.
cat scratch disease
- Cat scratch disease is an infection caused by the bacteria, Bartonella (bar-ton-el-ah) Henselae (hen-sel-ay).
- A cataract is a spot on the eye that blocks light, or a blemish within the lens of the eye. This creates a hazy, cloudy, or frosty appearance. Cataracts interfere with vision.
catheter associated UTI
- A catheter associated urinary tract infection (UTI) is an inflammation or infection of the bladder. This type of UTI is caused by using a urinary catheter. A urinary catheter is a thin tube that is placed through the urethra to drain urine from the bladder.
- Dental caries, or cavities, are very common. They are caused by acid attacking the tooth. The acid is made from the bacteria in dental plaque. The plaque bacteria feed on sugars and starches from the diet and change them into acid. This acid eats into tooth enamel, or the outer layer of the tooth, and dentine, the major part or core of the tooth. The tooth then gradually dissolves.
- The three most common reasons people need glasses are far sightedness, near sightedness and astigmatism. Many people think astigmatism is a disease or neurological problem. It is not. It is an abnormality in the optical part of the eye. It produces a blurred image.
celiac sprue
central retinal degeneration
salt imbalance
- Salt or sodium imbalance occurs when there is too little or too much sodium in the bloodstream. The condition is called hyponatraemia when there is too little sodium, and hypernatraemia when there is too much sodium in the bloodstream.
cerebral aneurysm
cerebrospinal fluid fistula
- Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is an abnormal drainage of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space in the brain. The fluid may leak out into the body, but it is usually seen leaking through the ears, nose, or an open wound.
cerebrovascular accident
cerebrovascular accident
cerebrovascular amyloidosis
cervical cancer
cervical carcinoma
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
cervical tumor
- Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, mostly of young children. Sometimes the disease is not diagnosed until adolescence or adulthood. People with cystic fibrosis secrete very thick mucous from the windpipe, or tracheobronchial glands. They also have abnormal secretions of sweat and saliva. The pancreas may release enzymes improperly, a condition called pancreatic insufficiency. The lungs have changes similar to those in bronchiectasis.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a poorly understood condition that results in severe fatigue and other symptoms.
- A chalazion is a mass or cyst in the upper or lower eyelid that is benign, or non-cancerous. Chalazions are often chronic, which means that they recur frequently.
asymptomatic bacteriuria
- Asymptomatic bacteruiria is the presence of bacteria in the urine, without any symptoms.
- Malingering is a condition in which a person pretends to have an illness or disability to get some type of external gain. This may include trying to avoid work or get money.
paranoid personality disorder
- A personality disorder is a mental disorder that causes a person to think and behave abnormally. This makes it hard for him or her to interact with other people and function normally in society. A person with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) mistrusts other people, even though he or she has no reason to do so.
vaginal bleeding between periods
- Vaginal bleeding between periods is when a woman has uterine bleeding after she has finished one menstrual period and before she begins the next. This occurs in many women at some point in their lives.
chemical abuse and dependence
- Drug abuse occurs when a person feels the need to use a drug repeatedly for various reasons. Drug addiction is said to be present when a person continues to abuse a drug after serious problems related to the drug use have occurred.
- Gangrene is the death of living cells or tissues of the body.
- Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which a weakened heart cannot pump enough blood to body organs. Since the pumping action of the heart is reduced, blood backs up into certain body tissues, causing fluid buildup.
CHF in children
- Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot adequately pump blood. Because the pumping action of the heart is reduced, blood backs up into certain body tissues, causing fluid build up.
atrial septal defects
- An atrial septal defect is an abnormal opening in the wall of the heart that separates the right from the left atrium.
childbirth, emergency delivery
childhood depression
- Depression is a feeling of sadness, despair or hopelessness. The feelings do not go away. Depression affects a person's ability to function in daily life. 1% to 3% of children meet the criteria for major depression, whereas 3% to 6% of teenagers meet these criteria.
- Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, caused by the organism Chlamydia trachomatis. Sexually transmitted disease refers to any contagious disease transmitted from one person to another during sexual contact.
- Cholera is an infection of the intestines caused by bacteria called Vibrio cholera. This infection results in large amounts of diarrhoea.
cholesterol embolism
chondromalacia patellae
chondromalacia patellae (CMP)
- Runner's knee is a condition causing pain in the front of the knee often due to excess wear on the underside of the kneecap. It is also called chondromalacia patellae. Chondro- means cartilage, -malacia means softening or roughening, and patella means kneecap.
bacterial vaginosis
- Bacterial vaginosis is an overgrowth of a normal vaginal organism in the absence of inflammation.
- A hammertoe is a foot condition in which the one or more of the joints of the toe is permanently contracted, or curled under. This forces the toe into a claw-like position. This condition can affect more than one toe, but is most common in the second toe, which is the toe next to the big toe.
chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Chronic prostatitis is a low-grade bacterial infection of the prostate gland. It can last a long time and cause recurrent urinary tract infections.
Baker's cyst
- A Baker's cyst is an abnormal collection of joint fluid inside a sac that is located behind the knee.
vaginal bleeding in pregnancy
- Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy generally refers to bleeding that happens at any time during pregnancy before the delivery of the baby.
chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic frontal sinusitis
- Chronic sinusitis is the presence of constant nasal and sinus symptoms for three months or longer.
chronic kidney failure
- Chronic renal failure is a disease in which the kidneys gradually stop working over a period of a few years.
aural polyps
- Aural polyps are non-cancerous, fleshy growths in the outer ear canal or on the eardrum.
chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that reduces the ability to breathe. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are two common types of COPD. Chronic bronchitis is present when a person has a cough and produces sputum on most days for at least three months a year for two years in a row. Other causes for chronic cough, such as lung infections or tumours, need to be excluded before the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is made. Emphysema is present when many of the air sacs in the lung are destroyed and the air sacs left over are abnormal and have poor function.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Anaemia is a condition in which red blood cells or the haemoglobin (a protein) in red blood cells is abnormally low.
chronic otitis externa
chronic otitis media
chronic outer ear inflammation
- Paraphimosis is a painful swelling of the retracted foreskin of the penis.
chronic prostatitis
chronic renal failure
chronic rhinosinusitis
chronic sinusitis
basal ganglia disorders
- The basal ganglia are a group of structures within the brain that help with movement. Any condition that affects the function of these structures is a basal ganglia disorder.
chronic tonsillitis
chronic urinary tract infection
chronic UTI
classical migraine
- Classical migraine is a throbbing headache that occurs on both sides of the head, or sometimes just one side. It can last anywhere from a few hours to many days. It usually begins with visual sensations, called auras, that last from 5minutes to 30 minutes. Visual auras may include seeing flashing lights or wavy lines.
clavicle fracture
cleft lip
- Cleft lip is a birth defect that involves a split in the upper lip. Cleft palate is a birth defect that involves a split down the centre of the roof of the mouth, also known as the palate. These defects may occur by themselves, which is known as isolated cleft lip or isolated cleft palate. They may also occur together, which is called cleft lip with cleft palate.
cleft lip and palate
cleft palate
clotting disorders
clouding of the lens
cluster headaches
- Cluster headaches are intense, headaches in the area of the eye socket that occur in "clusters," or multiple times a day for several weeks.
- Cytomegalovirus is a virus that causes different illnesses in different groups of people.
CO poisoning
coarctation of the aorta
cocaine abuse
- Cocaine comes from the leaves of the coca plant, which grows mostly in South America. Cocaine has the ability to constrict blood vessels and causes noticeable changes in mental processes and moods. Some forms of cocaine are used in medications, such as anaesthetics, which dull or block pain sensations. When cocaine is boiled with sodium bicarbonate, it is converted into a freebase form called crack cocaine. This can then be smoked and results in a brief, intense high. Crack is relatively cheap and extremely addictive.
cocaine addiction
cocaine dependence
cocaine intoxication
cocaine sleep disorders
cocaine withdrawal
cocaine-induced anxiety disorders
cocaine-induced mood disorders
cocaine-induced psychosis
cocaine-related disorders
- An arrhythmia of the heart is an abnormality of the rhythm or rate of the heartbeat. The arrhythmia is caused by a disturbance of the normal electrical activity within the heart.
cognitive disability
- A cognitive impairment means there is a change in how a person thinks, reacts to emotions, or behaves.
cognitive disorder
cognitive impairment
- A hangover is the set of symptoms caused by excessive alcohol intake.
occupational hearing loss
- Occupational hearing loss is the term for hearing loss caused by noise trauma.
aplastic anemia
- Aplastic anaemia is a disease of the bone marrow in which there is a failure to generate blood cells.
- Colitis is a general term that refers to the inflammation of the bowel, or large intestine.
collarbone fracture
colon polyps
- A colorectal polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue on the inside lining of the bowel or rectum.
color blindness
colorectal cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer affects the lining of the large intestine and rectum.
colorectal cancer
colorectal polyps
common cold
manic depression
- Manic depression or bipolar disorder is a major psychiatric illness characterised by periods of either elevated or depressed mood. Behavioural changes occur and the duration of the disturbance is usually at least several days. Sometimes the mood state can persist for weeks or even months if not treated. Sometimes periods of depression alternate with periods of mania. For the diagnosis to be made there has to have been at least one episode of mania or hypomania (a mild form of mania).
Tay-Sachs disease
- Tay-Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that causes an early breakdown of the nervous system. Most people born with this disease do not survive past their third birthday.
complete heart block
complex partial seizure
- A seizure is an abnormal change in the electrical activity of the brain. These electrical changes may occur in or near the part of the brain called the temporal lobe. This is known as a complex partial seizure
compulsive gambling disorder
- Compulsive gambling is a disorder in which a person cannot control his or her urge to gamble. Gambling is any betting or wagering for oneself or others. Gambling depends on skill or chance, and may or may not involve money. Compulsive gambling disorder is an impulse control disorder.
- Autism is a condition that affects development of the brain. Autism severely affects a person's social, mental, emotional, and communications skills.
congenital cyanotic heart disease
- Cyanotic heart disease refers to certain kinds of birth defects, or congenital heart disease, that affect the heart. Cyanotic heart disease causes cyanosis, or a blue skin colour.
congenital dislocation of the hip
congenital dysplasia of the hip
congenital heart defects
- Congenital heart disease, or CHD, is any birth defect involving the heart or the large blood vessels. Congenital means that the defect is present at birth.
congenital heart disease
congenital pernicious anemia
congenital subluxation of the hip
congestive heart failure
congestive heart failure in children
congophilic cerebral angiopathy
consumption coagulopathy
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious condition that affects the blood clotting mechanisms of the body. The proteins involved in blood clotting are activated in an abnormal and uncontrollable fashion by various diseases. This can result in tissue damage and abnormal bleeding.
contact dermatitis
conversion disorder
- A conversion disorder is a condition in which a person develops certain physical symptoms, such as paralysis or visual impairment, in response to severe psychological stress. No physical cause can be found for these symptoms.
coronary artery disease
atrial fibrillation
- Atrial (ay-tree-all) fibrillation (fib-rill-ay-shun) is an abnormal rhythm in the heart that can lead to fast and uneven heart rates.
coronary heart disease
Corynebacterium vaginale vaginitis
teenage pregnancy
- Teenage pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs from puberty, to age 19. Puberty is the stage of adolescence when a girl becomes able to sexually reproduce. The pregnancy may be wanted or unwanted.
crack addiction
Alzheimer's disease
- Alzheimer's disease is a common, progressive, degenerative disease of the brain. It is characterised by loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Among people aged 65 or older, it is the most common cause of dementia. Dementia is a group of symptoms marked by the gradual loss of mental function.
bacterial meningitis
- Bacterial (back-tier-ee-al) meningitis (men-in-jie-tis) is an infection of the membranes that cover the brain.
atrial flutter
- Atrial flutter is a very rapid, regular heart beat that starts in the atria, or upper chambers of the heart.
CSF leak
Cushing's syndrome
- Cushing's syndrome is a disorder of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce too much hormone.
yeast infection of the skin and mucous membranes
- A yeast infection of the skin and mucous membranes is caused by Candida albicans.
cutaneous larvae migrans
cyanotic heart disease
cystic fibrosis
cystine stone disease
- Cystinuria is an inherited disease that causes a specific type of kidney stones.
cystitis, acute bacterial
- Cystocele is a condition in which part of the bladder drops down, or protrudes, into the wall of the vagina.
marijuana abuse
- Marijuana, or cannabis, abuse is a pattern of use with negative consequences. These consequences may affect all areas of life (social, occupational, school, interpersonal). Marijuana is usually smoked.
decompression illness
decompression sickness
scalp problems
- Scalp problems are conditions or symptoms that affect the skin of the top of the head.
decreased sexual desire
decreased urination
- Decreased urination is often caused by dehydration, but sometimes it may indicate serious disease.
decreased urine production
bacterial pericarditis
- The pericardium is a sac-like structure that surrounds the heart. Inflammation of the heart sac, called pericarditis, can be due to infections caused by bacteria.
delirium tremens
delivery, emergency
delusional disorder
- A person with a delusional disorder has beliefs or perceptions that he or she thinks are true, even if they are illogical or wrong. These beliefs or perceptions often last for at least one month.
dementia infantilis
dental abscess
dental caries
dental decay
denture sore
dependence on substances
depression in children
- Adenocarcinoma is the name of a broad category of cancers. This type of cancer comes from cells that line organs such as the bowel, lung, and breast.
developmental dysplasia of the hip
developmental reading disorder
- Dyslexia is an impairment of the ability to read caused by a difference in brain function.
- Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition in which a person is thirsty all of the time, drinks large amounts of fluids, and produces large amounts of urine. It is not the same condition as the more commonly-known diabetes mellitus.
- Diabetes mellitus, often called diabetes, is a condition that affects the body's ability to regulate the level of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main form of sugar in the body.
diabetes and infections
- A person with diabetes mellitus is at higher risk for infections than other people.
diabetes insipidus
diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus
diabetic dermal ulcer
- A diabetic foot ulcer is an open sore or wound on the foot of a person with diabetes. Because of loss of pain sensation, it is usually not painful.
diabetic dermal wound
diabetic foot ulcer
diabetic foot wound
- Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
diabetic glomerulosclerosis
- Diabetic nephropathy is a description of the damage to a person's kidneys that can occur due to diabetes mellitus. This condition decreases kidney function.
diabetic ketoacidosis
- Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), or diabetes. It may occur in some people when their diabetes is not well controlled.
diabetic kidney disease
diabetic nephropathy
diabetic neuropathic ulceration
diabetic neuropathy
- Diabetic neuropathy is an injury to the peripheral nervous system caused by underlying diabetes mellitus.
diabetic sclerosis
diarrhea caused by antibiotics
benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the enlargement of the prostate gland. It is caused by excess growth of cells in the prostate. This condition does not represent cancer.
diethylstilbestrol exposure in the womb
diffuse oesophageal spasm
digitalis toxicity
- Digitalis drugs are a class of medications used in some heart conditions. In Australia, digoxin is the main digitalis drug. When the amount of digoxin in the blood becomes too high, toxic effects occur.
digoxin overdose
digoxin toxicity
dilated congestive cardiomyopathy
diminished libido
disintegrative psychosis
bursitis - Images    (Click to view larger image) - - What is going on in the body?  - bursa are fluid-filled sacs that act like cushions. They keep tendons and bones from rubbing against each other. bursa are found in places like the...
disorders affecting the basal ganglia
disputed thoracic outlet syndrome
dissecting aortic aneurysm
dissection of the aorta
disseminated intravascular coagulation
dissociative disorder
- A dissociative disorder is a defence mechanism in which one's identity, memories, ideas, feelings, or perceptions are separated from conscious awareness. They can't be recalled or experienced voluntarily. The following are considered types of dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia dissociative fugue dissociative stupor trance and possession disorders dissociative motor disorders dissociative convulsions dissociative anaesthesia and sensory loss mixed dissociative (conversion) disordersEach of these types of disorders has specific ways in which the symptoms of dissociation are shown. However, they all share the use of separation of emotions or behaviour from the person's conscious thoughts.
distal radial fracture
- This condition involves a fracture, which is a break in the bones of the wrist. Fractures usually occur with a displacement, which means that the bones are out of their normal position.
Kaposi's sarcoma
- Kaposi's sarcoma is a specific type of cancer that involves the tissues of the skin or the coverings of blood vessels.
dropped bladder
drug abuse and addiction
drug allergy
drug dependence
drug-induced hemolytic anemia
- Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia is a condition where the immune system destroys the red blood cells. This takes place in response to medication. The resulting low red blood cell count is known as anaemia.
drug-induced hepatitis
- Hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, can be caused by medications.
drug-induced high blood pressure
- Drug-induced hypertension is an abnormally high blood pressure that has been brought on by a drug or medication.
drug-induced hypertension
drug-induced hypoglycemia
- Hypoglycaemia, or low levels of the blood sugar called glucose, can sometimes be caused by medications.
drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia
drug-induced lung disease
- Drug-induced pulmonary disease is any lung disease that is directly caused by a drug or medication.
drug-induced lupus
- Systemic lupus erythematosus, called SLE or lupus, is a poorly understood autoimmune disorder. A lupus-like syndrome can sometimes be caused by medications.
drug-induced lupus erythematosus
drug-induced polyneuropathies
drug-induced pulmonary disease
drug-induced tremor
- A tremor is involuntary trembling or quivering. It is usually noticed in the tongue, arms or legs. Drugs can sometimes cause a tremor.
dual personality disorder
Dupuytren's disease
- Dyshidrotic eczema is a fiercely itchy, deep-seated, blistering rash on the palms of the hands, sides of fingers, and soles of the feet.
dyshidrotic eczema
- Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelid. It develops at the place where the mucous membrane on the underside of the lid joins the skin on the top of the lid. It occurs in both children and adults. The condition can be chronic and recur.
ear canal polyps
ear foreign objects
ear wax buildup
eating disorder
- gastroenteritis describes inflammation of the inside lining of the stomach and intestines.
- During pregnancy, sudden high blood pressure, swelling of the face and hands and protein in the urine signal a condition called pre-eclampsia. It becomes eclampsia if seizures unrelated to an existing seizure disorder occur.
scarlet fever
- Scarlet fever is a relatively rare infection. It affects people who have a throat or skin infection caused by certain strains of the group A streptococcus bacteria.
emergency delivery
- Ecthyma is a bacterial skin infection caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal organisms.
end-stage renal disease
end-stage renal failure
endolymphatic hydrops
endometrial cancer
bladder outlet obstruction
- Bladder outlet obstruction is a condition in which the opening between the bladder and the urethra is partially or completely blocked. This allows only some urine, or sometimes none at all, to empty from the bladder.
ectopic pregnancy
- An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilised egg implants outside of the uterus. The most common site is within a fallopian tube. More rarely an embryo may implant within an ovary, in the cervix, or on the abdominal wall.
enlarged adenoids
enlarged prostate
gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
- In gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or GORD, stomach fluids travel, or reflux, from the stomach back into the food pipe or oesophagus (eh-sah-fah-gus). The oesophagus is a narrow, muscular tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. The ring of muscle that is at the bottom of the oesophagus is called the lower oesophageal sphincter. Although reflux may happen normally, it can become serious when the sphincter is not working properly.
- Ectropion is an outward turning, or eversion, of the eyelid margin. It may be mild or a total eversion, which exposes the mucous membrane lining underneath the lid. It usually involves the lower lid and not the upper.
- gastroparesis means paralysis of the stomach, and is a condition in which the stomach does not empty properly.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland. The cause of the condition is not known. The thyroid gland is in the front of the neck just below the Adam's apple. It secretes thyroid hormone, which is important in metabolism throughout the body.
- Eczema is a skin condition that causes patches of dry, scaly, extremely itchy skin.
epididymitis, acute
episodic dyscontrol syndrome
narcissistic personality disorder
- Someone with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) has an abnormal love of self, and is self-centered and self-absorbed. The person is unable to empathise with the effects of his or her behaviour on others.
Epstein-Barr virus
Erb's Palsy
radiation enteritis
- Radiation enteritis is a complication of radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis. Radiation therapy is sometimes used to treat certain diseases, especially cancers. In addition to killing cancer deep in the body, it damages the healthy tissue around it, like the bowels. The damage may occur at the time of treatment or take many years to develop.
erythromelalgia of the head
allergic reactions to drugs
- A drug allergy, or an allergic reaction to drugs, is an unintended bodily response to a medication. Symptoms can vary from a mild rash to death.
oesophageal cancer
oesophageal obstruction
oesophageal spasm
botulism in adults and children
- Botulism is a rare but potentially fatal disorder. It is caused by a toxin, or poison, produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It can result in paralysis, or the loss of sensation or muscle function, if left untreated. It can also cause breathing difficulty.
oesophageal stricture
oesophageal variceal bleeding
oesophageal variceal hemorrhage
oesophageal variceal rupture
oesophageal cancer
- Cancer of the oesophagus is a tumour that grows in the lining of the oesophagus. The esophagus is the tube connecting the mouth and upper throat to the stomach.
essential tremor
essential vulvodynia
ethylene glycol poisoning
botulism in infants
- Botulism is a condition caused by a toxin made by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. This toxin triggers sudden, progressive weakness and paralysis. Infant botulism is usually seen in babies younger than 6 months old.
eversion of the eyelid
failure to thrive
- An infant or toddler who has failure to thrive (FTT) does not gain weight normally or may lose weight.
exfoliative dermatitis
external canal infection
extrauterine pregnancy
bleeding oesophageal varices
- Oesophageal varices are unusually widened veins around the oesophagus. The oesophagus is the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. These veins may sometimes bleed.
facial nerve palsy
facial nerve weakness
facial swelling
factor IX deficiency
failure to thrive
fallen arches
fallen bladder
temporomandibular joint syndrome
- Temporomandibular joint syndrome or TMJ affects the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull.
false labor
false labour
- False labour or prelabour is often called the first stage of labour. It's when the cervix begins to thin out, shorten, and soften. False labour causes contractions that feel like the uterus is knotting up, known as Braxton Hicks contractions. These contractions are often irregular and do not get closer together consistently. They may stop when the woman rests and usually do not get stronger. False labour can feel just like true labour to a woman.
cardiac tamponade
- Cardiac tamponade is a build-up of fluid in the pericardium, which is the thin membrane around the heart. This build-up obstructs the inflow of blood so that the ventricles, or lower chambers of the heart, cannot fill.
familial hypertriglyceridaemia
- Familial hypertriglyceridaemia is an inherited disorder that causes high triglycerides in the blood.
radiation sickness
- Radiation sickness is caused by exposure to a large amount of radiation. This may be the result of a nuclear accident or the explosion of a nuclear weapon. Radiation sickness can be acute or chronic.
febrile seizures
feeling "down"
fetal alcohol syndrome
fever blisters
fibrocystic changes in the breast
fibrocystic disease of the breast
fifth disease
unconsciousness, first aid
- Unconsciousness is defined as a state of unawareness or an inability to respond as a result of reduced brain stem activity.
brachial palsy in the newborn
- Brachial palsy is a condition in an infant in which the arm is partly or completely paralysed.
first-degree heart block
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease that causes very low platelet counts.
flat feet
bowel obstruction
- Bowel obstruction describes a blockage in the bowels.
- Paronychia is a swelling and infection of the skin surrounding a fingernail or toenail.
food hypersensitivity
food poisoning
foot arch pain
foot care for people with diabetes
foreign object in the nose
frontal sinusitis
frozen shoulder
familial periodic paralysis
- Familial periodic paralysis is a condition that causes occasional bouts of muscle weakness. It is usually brought on by an abnormal level of potassium in the blood.
Gaucher disease
- Gaucher disease is an inherited disorder in the metabolism of fats.
Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis
gas gangrene
- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which a person loses contact with reality. It causes a decline in the person's general ability to function, as well as abnormal thinking, speech, and behaviour.
gender identity disorder
- A gender identity disorder is one in which a person wants to be the opposite sex. The person may also believes that he or she is "trapped" in a body of the wrong sex.
gastric outlet obstruction
gastric ulcer
general paresis
- General paresis is a chronic infection of the brain with the organism that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum. The disease is characterised by progressive mental and physical impairment. Today, this disease is almost non-existent in Australia because treatment is widely available. Syphilis of the brain or spinal cord affects only about 5% of people with untreated syphilis.
Gaucher disease
generalised anxiety disorder
- Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychological disorder. It involves chronic, repeated episodes of anxiety. Anxiety, morbid fear and dread are accompanied by involuntary or autonomic changes.
general paresis of the insane
generalized anxiety disorder
generalised tonic-clonic seizure
- These seizures are marked by a sudden loss of consciousness with violent muscle contractions of the limbs and trunk. There may be a loss of bladder control and some injury to the mouth.
breast cancer
- Breast cancer occurs when a cell within a breast undergoes changes that cause it to grow and divide uncontrollably. The tumour that develops from this will destroy tissue around it. Any tissue in the breast can be affected. Usually the cancer arises from tissue that forms milk ducts. Both women and men can develop breast cancer, but it is very rare in men.
genu varum
carpal tunnel syndrome
- Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) refers to numbness, tingling, weakness, and discomfort in the wrist and hand. It is caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist.
rapid heartbeat
- A rapid heartbeat is defined as a heart rate that is faster than normal. The heart normally beats fewer than 100 times per minute in adults. In children, the heart can beat slightly faster than 100 times per minute and still be considered normal.
gestational diabetes
giant hairy nevus
giant nevus
tennis elbow
- Tennis elbow is the name for a certain pain on the outside of the elbow. The pain occurs at the bony lump on the outside of the elbow, just above the joint. People who have never played tennis may develop this condition.
Genetic Diseases (GD)
- Genetic Diseases are inherited disorders that are usually caused by a defect in a single gene. There are many inborn errors of metabolism. Some produce relatively unimportant physical features or skeletal abnormalities. Others produce serious disease and even death.
genital herpes
- Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. The disease causes painful blisters on the genitals.
glossopharyngeal tic
glucose intolerance in pregnancy
glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency
glue ear
gluten intolerance
gluten-sensitive enteropathy
tension headache
- Tension headaches are periodic headaches that may develop into a chronic, everyday headache. Tension headaches tend to occur on both sides of the head. The headaches are pressing or tightening in quality, and the headaches are of mild to moderate severity.
genital injuries in females
- A genital injury to a female is an injury to the reproductive organs of a girl or a woman.
gonococcal urethritis
gonorrhea in females
gonorrhea in men
Goodpasture syndrome
gouty arthritis
genital injury in males
- A genital injury in a male is an injury to the penis, testicles, or the structures within them. The injury may occur as a result of an accident, disease, trauma, or sexual assault.
grand mal seizure
group B streptococcal septicemia of the newborn
Guillain-Barre syndrome
gum infection
hair loss
hair loss
hallux abducto valgus
hallux abducto valgus with metatarsus supremus varus
hallux valgus
Hand-Schuller-Christian Disease
lactose intolerance
- Lactose intolerance is a condition in which a person cannot digest lactose. Lactose is the sugar found in milk.
hardening of the arteries
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
hay fever conjunctivitis
heart attack
heart block
heart disease
heart failure
Heller syndrome
chronic subdural hematoma
- A chronic subdural haematoma is a buildup of blood between the membrane covering the brain, known as the dura, and the brain itself. This condition occurs as a result of a head injury and develops slowly over time. The trauma does not have to be significant to produce this condition.
Heamophilia A
Heamophilia B
hemorrhagic colitis
hemorrhagic stroke
carbon monoxide poisoning
- Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, tasteless, colourless, and poisonous gas. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a life-threatening condition caused by inhaling too much CO.
- Chancroid (shang-kroid) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacteria, Haemophilus (he-moff-ah-lus) ducreyi (do-kray-eye). It is characterised by genital ulcers.
hepatitis delta
hepatocellular carcinoma
hepatovirus infection
hereditary hemochromatosis
immunodeficiency disorder
- An immunodeficiency disorder describes any condition that weakens the body's ability to fight off infection.
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
- Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a rapid deterioration in kidney function over a short time. This condition usually occurs when there is an acute inflammation of the kidneys.
herpes genitalis
herpes infection of the genitals
herpes simplex
herpes simplex genial infection
hexosaminidase A deficiency
HFM disease
heart attack
- A heart attack occurs when the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen. This causes cells of the heart tissue to die.
high altitude cerebral edema
high altitude pulmonary edema
heart block
- Heart block is a disruption in the transmission of electrical signals between the upper and lower chambers of the heart.
heart disease
- Heart disease is a general term for a wide variety of diseases and conditions that affect the function of the heart.
high-altitude mountain sickness
Hirschsprung disease
histamine neuralgia
histiocytosis X
- Bronchiolitis is an inflammation in the bronchioles, or small airways in the lungs. It is characterised by wheezing. It usually affects children under 2 years of age.
Hodgkin's lymphoma
home delivery
Human immunodeficiency virus
human papillomavirus infection in females
hepatitis A
- Hepatitis A is an infection and inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is one of several types of hepatitis.
Huntington disease
hydatiform mole
- Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder affecting the regulation of sleep. The person receives inappropriate messages from the brain regulating sleep and wake times.
hydrops fetalis
hyperactivity, adult
nasal allergies
- Nasal allergies are caused by the interaction of allergens with allergy cells within the lining of the nose.
hypersensitivity reaction
hypertensive retinopathy
hepatitis B
- Hepatitis B is an infection and inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is one of several types of hepatitis.
hepatitis C
- Hepatitis C is an infection and inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. It is one of several types of hepatitis.
hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
hepatitis D
- Hepatitis D is an infection and inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis D virus. It is one of several types of hepatitis. The hepatitis D virus needs the hepatitis B virus to be present to cause an infection. These 2 viruses may be acquired at the same time. Also, a person may already have a chronic hepatitis B infection, then catch hepatitis D.
hypoglycemia from medications
hysterical conversion
hystrionic personality disorder
- Jaundice is a yellowish discolouration of the eyes and skin.
testicular cancer
- Testicular cancer is a malignancy that grows within a man's testicle.
idiopathic hemochromatosis
idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
IgA nephropathy
immunosuppressive disorder
inborn errors of metabolism
incompetent cervix
incomplete abortion
incomplete miscarriage
increased intracranial pressure
induced sensitivity reaction
infant apnea
infant botulism
infant diarrhea
infantile diarrhea
infantile Gaucher disaese
infantile paralysis
infected cyst
infected tooth
infection of the bronchi
infection of the prostate gland
infectious myringitis
infectious polyneuritis
infertility in women
inflammation of the bronchi
inflammation of the colon
inflammation of the eyelids
inflammation of the gallbladder
language disorders in children
- Some children develop problems with language. Language is defined as any method of expression or communication. It can be verbal or non-verbal.
paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
- Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, or PSVT, is an abnormal, fast heartbeat that occurs suddenly. It is triggered in the atria, or upper chambers, of the heart.
- Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and the layer under the skin.
ingrown toenail
inguinal hernia
inhibited sexual desire
injury to the genitals
injury to the genitals
injury to the testicles
laryngeal nerve damage
- The laryngeal nerves attach to the voice box, or larynx. Laryngeal nerve damage can be caused by a variety of medical conditions.
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
intermittent explosive disorder
intestinal flu
intestinal obstruction
intoxication with barbiturates
impulse-control disorders
- Impulse control disorders are characterised by a person's failure to resist an impulse. The person is unable to prevent him or herself from performing an act that will be harmful to self or others.
intracranial hemorrhage
intracranial hypertension
intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage
intrauterine growth restriction
intrauterine growth retardation
inversion of the eyelid
iron overload disease
irregular heartbeat
irritable bowel syndrome
irritant contact dermatitis
ischemic heart disease
Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease
joint inflammation
jet lag
- Jet lag is a condition in which a person's normal sleep cycle is disturbed by travel across time zones.
juvenile Gaucher disease
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
juvenile-onset diabetes
cerebral palsy
- Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive condition due to an injury to the brain before it is fully mature. This injury causes long-term problems with movement and often other difficulties as well.
- Keloids are patches of excessive scar tissue that may form following a skin injury.
- The sclera is the white, outer coat of the eye. When this area becomes inflamed, the condition is called scleritis.
ketosis-prone diabetes
Klumpke's paralysis
- Laryngitis is a general term for inflammation of the voice box, or larynx. It can be caused by many different conditions. The larynx is a tube-like structure that connects the back of the throat to the windpipes. It contains the vocal cords, which help us to talk.
lactose intolerance
Landry-Guillain-Barre syndrome
Langerhans histiocytoses
language disorders in children
laryngeal cancer
latent phase
lateral epicondylitis
adenocarcinoma of the small intestine
- Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine is a form of cancer that occurs in the part of the intestine that begins at the stomach. It is a rare form of cancer. This type of cancer makes up only a very small proportion of cancers in the digestive system.
lead toxicity
learning disability
learning disorder
left-sided heart failure
Legge-Calve-Perthes disease
deep venous thrombosis
- Venous thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot in a vein. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) means that a blood clot has formed in one of the large veins that are far below the skin.
legionnaires' disease
- Scleroderma is a widespread autoimmune disorder. It causes the skin and other body parts to slowly degenerate, thicken, and stiffen. An autoimmune disorder is one in which the body produces antibodies against its own tissues for no known reason.
Letterer-Siwe Disease
liver disease
localized scratch dermatitis
testicular feminisation
- Testicular feminisation occurs in a person who is genetically male and has the external appearance of a female.
passive-aggressive personality disorder
- A personality disorder is a condition in which personality traits are inflexible and cause severe problems in dealing with other people. These traits begin in the teenage or early adult years and remain for life. The passive-aggressive personality refers to people who express their aggression in a passive way.
loss of bladder control
adenoidal hypertrophy
- Adenoidal hypertrophy refers to the increased size of the adenoids, the 2 infection-fighting swellings at the back of the nose and above the tonsils.
lost interest in sex
Lou Gehrig's disease
low birth weight
low blood glucose
low blood pressure
low blood sugar
low body temperature
lung edema
- Scoliosis is a condition in which the spine is bent to one side. It can occur in infants and children, but typically develops during adolescence, when growth is most rapid.
lymphosarcoma leukemia
macular degeneration
mad cow disease
major depression
mal perforant ulcer
- Measles is a viral infection characterised by a red, bumpy rash.
male infertility
male pseudohermaphroditism
cherry angioma
- A cherry angioma is a tuft of blood vessels that form a bright red bump on the skin.
malignant hypertensive arteriolar nephrosclerosis
- Chicken pox is a disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It is characterised by a blistery rash.
mallet toe
mammary dysplasia
manic depression
marijuana abuse
mask of pregnancy
maternal blood loss
maternal hemorrhage
maxillary sinusitis
compression fractures of the back
- Brought on by force, a compression fracture is a break in the vertebra that causes it to collapse. The vertebra are the box-shaped bones that make up the spine. Typically, a compression fracture is wedge-shaped, with more collapse in the front, due to force on the spine from forward bending.
childhood disintegrative disorder
- A child with childhood disintegrative disorder develops normally for the first 2 years. At 3-4 years of age, the child shows marked deterioration of his or her intellectual, social, and language skills. Childhood disintegrative disorder is a type of pervasive developmental disorder.
meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)
median nerve compression or entrapment
medication-induced hepatitis
medication-induced hypertension
medication-induced hypoglycemia
medication-induced lupus
medication-induced pulmonary disease
medication-induced tremor
Mediterranean anemia
medullary cystic renal disease
Meniere's disease
Meniere's syndrome
meningococcus infections
mental abuse
mental retardation
mentally disabled
mentally handicapped
mesothelioma, malignant
metabolic acidosis
metabolic disorders
Patellofemoral syndrome
- Patellofemoral syndrome is a syndrome involving discomfort at the front of the knee. It is associated with irritation or wear on the underside of the kneecap, or patella.
epidural abscess
- An epidural abscess is a walled off area of infection that occurs in the space between the outermost membrane of the brain or spinal cord, and the overlying bone and ligaments.
migraine with aura
migraine without aura
migrainous neuralgia
testicular torsion
- A man's testicle receives its blood supply through a structure called the spermatic cord. This cord can become twisted, cutting off blood to the testicle. This is known as torsion of the testicle.
missed menstrual periods
mitral insufficiency, acute
mitral regurgitation, acute
- Melanoma is a type of skin cancer. It is an aggressive skin cancer that can spread to other parts of the body. The incidence of melanoma has been increasing over the last several decades.
- Melasma is an area of tan or brown colouring that usually appears on the face.
mixed tension headache
mixed tension migraine
mixed tension migraine headache
mixed-pattern headache
molar pregnancy
Meniere's disease
- Meniere's disease is a disorder characterised by recurrent attacks of disabling vertigo, or a whirling sensation, hearing loss, and ringing in the ear. The disease has no known cause.
- Tetanus is an infection that occurs when a germ gets into a cut or wound.
mood changes
mood disorder
morning sickness
motor twitches
oesophageal obstruction
- Oesophageal obstruction is a blockage or narrowing of the oesophagus, the muscular tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. This condition usually causes problems with swallowing.
mouth ulcer
MSG allergy
MSG symptom complex
mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
mucopolysaccharidosis II
multiple personality disorder
multiple sclerosis
multiple tic syndrome
Munchausen syndrome
Munchausen syndrome by proxy
tetrology of Fallot
- Tetrology of Fallot is a congenital heart defect. A combination of four abnormalities in the heart allows oxygen-rich and oxygen-depleted blood to mix. The resulting low-oxygen blood then circulates through the body.
chronic otitis externa
- Chronic otitis externa is a persistent inflammation of the ear canal.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
mycotic nails
myocardial contusion
myocardial infarction
myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome
narcissistic personality disorder
nasal allergies
nasal foreign body
nasal obstruction
nasal polyps
- Nasal polyps are growths in the nasal cavity. They often look like grapes or small balloons within the structures of the nasal cavity.
nasal polyps
nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
necrotizing external otitis
Neisseria meningitidis infections
nephronophthisis complex
neurogenic incontinence
neurologic bladder dysfunction
neurologic migraine
seasonal affective disorder
- Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a condition that causes lengthy bouts of severe depression during certain seasons of the year, especially winter.
neuromuscular dysfunction of the lower urinary tract
neuropathic bladder
neuropathy secondary to drugs
aortic stenosis
- The left side of the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood into the aorta, which is the main artery in the body. Before the blood reaches the aorta, it collects in an area called the left ventricle. The left ventricle squeezes, or contracts, regularly. That sends blood through the aortic valve and into the aorta.
new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease
newborn jaundice
nicotine withdrawal
sebaceous cysts
- Sebaceous cysts are sacs just beneath the skin that are filled with an oily, white, semisolid material. If the material becomes infected, the cyst will be red and painful. Sebaceous cysts are commonly seen on the scalp, labia, scrotum, chest, and back, but can be found anywhere on the body.
nocturnal myoclonus
noise-induced hearing loss
non-A, non-B hepatitis
chronic otitis media
- Chronic otitis media is a term to describe persistent or chronic middle ear inflammation. This may be due to persistent fluid behind the eardrum from repeated middle ear infections.
- Near-sightedness is a visual condition where a person is able to see things up close, but not far away.
noninsulin-dependent diabetes
nonlipid reticuloendotheliosis
nonparalytic poliomyelitis
nonpenetrating chest injury
nonspecific ulcerative colitis
nonspecific vaginitis
nontropical sprue
normal conditions in a newborn resulting from maternal hormones
normal pressure hydrocephalus disease
nosocomial pneumonia
obsession de la honte du corps
obsession with shame of the body
oesophageal perforation
- Oesophageal perforation is a hole in the wall of the oesophagus, which is the muscular tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
oesophageal spasm
- Oesophageal spasm is an uncoordinated contraction of the muscles of the oesophagus. The esophagus is the muscular tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
obstructive sleep apnea
occlusion of nasolacrimal duct (neonatal or acquired)
occupational hearing loss
oesophageal stricture
- An oesophageal stricture is a gradual narrowing of the tube that carries food to the stomach. It occurs when scar tissue builds up in the tube.
opaque lens or capsule
ophthalmia neonatorum
ophthalmoplegic migraine
oral cancer
- Oesophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the oesophagus. The oesophagus is the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
oral cleft
oral herpes
oral moniliasis
oral thrush
oral ulcer
organic brain syndrome
otitis interna
outward turning of the eyelid
Paget's disease
pain in the leg
painful bladder syndrome
painful foot joints
palmar fasciitis
Palmar fibromatosis
panic attacks
panic disorder
paralytic poliomyelitis
paranoid personality disorder
paretic neurosyphilis
seborrheic dermatitis
- Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, inflamed redness and scaling of the skin. It can involve the scalp and face. When this condition occurs in infants, it is sometimes called cradle cap. In adults, seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp is called dandruff.
paroxysmal nocturnal cephalalgia
paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
parrot fever
passing out
patello-femoral pain syndrome
patello-femoral stress syndrome
pathological gambling
pathological grieving
patulous eustachian tube
pelvic inflammatory disease
- A woman's reproductive organs include the uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection of these organs.
pediatric meningitis
Undescended testicle
- Undescended testicle, called cryptorchidism, refers to a testicle that fails to move into the scrotum. This is a condition that is present at birth.
pelvic support relaxation
penile injury
peptic ulcer disease
perforation of the esophagus
periapical abscess
cervical dysplasia
- Cervical dysplasia is a condition in which a woman has abnormal changes in the top layer of cells of her cervix. The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. The changes are local and have not spread more deeply into the cervix or to other sites in the body.
peripheral arterial disease
peripheral atherosclerosis
peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
persistent otitis media
peptic ulcer disease
- Peptic ulcer disease occurs when the lining of the oesophagus, stomach, or duodenum is worn away by stomach acid and other factors.
pervasive developmental disorder
pes cavus
pes planovalgus
pes planus
- A cold is a viral infection that affects the upper airway including the nose, pharynx, throat, airways, and lungs.
seborrheic keratosis
- Seborrheic keratosis is a condition in which harmless growths develop on the skin.
cardiogenic shock
- Cardiogenic shock is the failure of the heart to pump enough blood to the major organs to support life.
pilar cyst
pink eye
pituitary gland deficiency
- Perimenopause refers to the time before menopause, that is, before a woman stops menstruating completely.
- Thalassaemia is an inherited condition that causes a problem in the production of haemoglobin. This may lead to anaemia, which is a low red blood cell count.
placenta abruptio
placental abruption
placental insufficiency
plantar fasciitis
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac dermatitis
poison oak dermatitis
poison plant dermatitis
peripheral arterial disease
- Peripheral arterial disease includes conditions that reduce blood flow to the arms and legs to such a degree that the person has symptoms. Peripheral arterial disease is most commonly caused by arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Only about 3% of persons under the age of 60 have peripheral arterial disease, compared with more than 20% of people over age 75.
polycystic kidney disease
polycystic ovarian disorder (PCOD)
polycystic ovarian syndrome
polycythemia vera
popliteal cyst
peripheral neuropathy
- This is a condition of peripheral nerves in which there is damage to and a decrease in the function of the affected nerves. Damage to the nerves may result in decreased sensation, decreased ability to move, or numbness, or both. There may also be positive symptoms such as pins and needles, tingling or burning.
porous bones
Dupuytren's contracture
- Dupuytren's contracture is a thickening and tightening of the fibrous tissue beneath the skin on the palm of the hand. The contracture causes bending of the fourth and, frequently, the fifth fingers.
port wine stain
post-MI pericarditis
post-renal nephropathy
post-traumatic stress disorder
posterior shin splints
posterior tibial tendinitis
postmyocardial infarction pericarditis
postpartum depression
- Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin membrane that lines the inside of the abdominal cavity.
posttraumatic stress
posttraumatic stress syndrome
postural hypotension
Pott's curvature
precancerous changes of the cervix
preclinical abortion
conduct disorder in children
- Conduct disorder is characterised by repeated bouts of disruptive behaviour. The child or adolescent is a rule-breaker who ignores the basic rights of other people, causes physical harm to others or animals, steals, lies and shows other "bad" behaviours.
precocious puberty
pregnancy in the fallopian tube
pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
pregnancy-vaginal bleeding
premature infant
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD)
premenstrual syndrome
premenstrual tension
premenstrual tension syndrome
preterm births
preterm labor
primary adrenal failure
primary adrenocortical insufficiency
primary atypical pneumonia
primary glomerulonephritis
primary hypothyroidism
primary lung cancer
primary polycythemia
Prinzmetal's angina
processus vaginalis
prodromal labor
progressive bulbar palsy
Raynaud's phenomenon
- People with Raynaud's phenomenon have repeating episodes of constriction, or tightening, of the blood vessels called arteries. The constriction of the arteries interrupts the blood flow to the area. Raynaud's phenomenon usually affects the tips of the fingers and toes, but may also occur in the nose and ears.
prolapsed uterus
prostate cancer
prostate gland infection
prostatitis, acute
prostatitis, non-bacterial
pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy
pseudotumor cerebri disease
psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUDs)
psychological abuse
psychomotor epilepsy
psychopathic personality disorder
personality disorders
- Personality disorders are chronic mental disorders. People with these disorders have behaviours that make it hard for them to function in society. Affected people usually do not learn from mistakes and do not adapt well to changes in their lives. The genisis of these disorders can usually be identified in behavioural patterns exhibited in childhood. In many cases the severity of the maladaptive pattern of behaviour lessens in older adulthood.
pudendal hernia
pudendal neuralgia
PUJ Obstruction
Perthes disease
- Perthes disease is inflammation of the femoral head, possibly due to loss of blood supply. The femoral head is the ball on the end of the thighbone that fits into the socket of the hip joint. This disease may eventually lead to destruction of the femoral head.
pulmonary edema
pulmonary embolus
pulmonary hemorrhage
pulmonary histiocytosis X
pulmonary Langerhans' granulomatosis
pulmonic atresia
purulent otitis media
pyloric stenosis
pyogenic pericarditis
quitting smoking
rapid heartbeat
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Raynaud's disease
Raynaud's phenomenon
Raynaud's syndrome
rectal polyps
rectal procidentia
rectal prolapse
rectal prolapse
- Rectal prolapse is a condition in which the rectum partially or completely sticks out through the anus.
recurrent episodic vertigo
recurrent otitis media
recurrent seizures
recurrent UTI
recurring urinary tract infection
red measles
red migraine
reflux esophagitis
regional enteritis
Reiter's syndrome
relapsing urinary tract infection
relapsing UTI
renal artery aneurysm
renal artery embolism
renal failure
- Rectocele is a condition in which part of the rectum protrudes or bulges into the back wall of the vagina.
respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
respiratory distress syndrome in newborns
restless leg syndrome
restrictive myocardiopathy
reversible ischemic neurologic disease (RIND)
Rh incompatibility
Rh isoimmunization
rheumatic chorea
recurring urinary tract infection
- Recurring urinary tract infection (UTI) involves repeated infections of the kidneys or bladder even after proper treatment.
Reiter's syndrome
- Reiter's syndrome is an arthritis, or inflammation of the joints and tendons. It is often accompanied by an inflammation of the eyes, known as conjunctivitis, and certain mucous membranes.
roundworm infection
RSV infection
runner's knee
runner's toe
ruptured disc
ruptured disc
chlamydia infection in females
- Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, caused by the organism Chlamydia trachomatis. Sexually transmitted disease refers to any contagious disease transmitted from one person to another during sexual contact. In women, the infection usually occurs in the urinary tract, pelvis, or cervix. The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus.
saddle back
salivary duct stones
salivary gland neoplasms
salivary gland tumors
- Coma is a term that is used to describe a state of unconsciousness from which a person cannot be aroused.
salmonella infections
salt imbalance
San Joaquin Valley Fever
scalp problems
selective mutism
- Selective mutism is a condition in which a person who is usually fluent in speech won't speak in specific situations. Selective mutism primarily affects children.
scarlet fever
Scheuermann's disease
schizophrenic disorder
senile cerebral amyloid angiopathy
- Senile cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition in which a protein is deposited into the walls of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. The protein that gets deposited is called amyloid.
seasonal affective disorder
seasonal depression
sebaceous cysts
seborrheic dermatitis
seborrheic keratosis
seborrheic warts
second-degree heart block
secretory otitis media
seizure disorder
selective mutism
senile cerebral amyloid angiopathy
senile lentigo
senile tremor
sensorimotor polyneuropathy
serum hepatitis
- Sepsis is a severe infection in the body and bloodstream that can lead to shock, a reaction caused by lack of blood flow in the body.
severe acting out
severe anger/rage control problems
severe behavior problems
severe neutropenia
severe social behavior problems
severe vomiting in pregnancy
sexual dysfunction in women
sexual precocity
shin splints
septic shock
- Septic shock is a condition caused by a serious infection that involves the blood.
short bowel syndrome
Shy-Drager syndrome
Shy-McGee-Drager syndrome
sickle cell trait
sinonasal angiofibroma
sinus infection
serum sickness
- Serum is the fluid left over when blood cells are taken out of the blood. Serum sickness refers to a set of symptoms that occurs when a person's immune system reacts to a medication or other similar substance. It is a type of allergic reaction.
skin abscess
skin cancer
skin lesions
sleep walking disorder
slipped capital femoral epiphysis
slipped disc
slipped femoral epiphysis
slow heartbeat
small for gestational age
smoker's cough
smoking cessation
sociopathic personality disorder
sodium imbalance
soft fibroma
solar lentigines
solar lentigo
sore throat
spasm of the esophagus
spasmodic torticollis
spastic colon
spastic pseudoparalysis
speech disorders in children
sphenoid sinusitis
spider nevi
spider vein
spinal dysraphism
spinal rachischisis
sexual dysfunction in women
- A woman of any age can become less interested in sex or have a decreased sex drive. This condition is called sexual dysfunction. It is most common in women before, during, and right after menopause has ended.
spontaneous abortion
squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity
St. Vitus dance
stable angina
stable diabetes
staphylococcal scalded skin
sexually transmitted disease
- Sexually transmitted disease, or STD, refers to any contagious disease that is transmitted from one person to another during sexual contact.
Stein-Leventhal syndrome
Still's disease
stomach cancer
stomach ulcer
straddle injury
straddle injury
corneal ulcers and infections
- The cornea is the clear window on the front of the eye that covers the coloured iris and pupil. There are different types of corneal ulcers. The ulcers may be cause by bacteria, a virus or fungus. The corneal tissue breaks down starting at the surface. Poor healing can cause an ulcer to form.
streptococcal pharyngitis
stress fracture
stress headache
stroke following carotid dissection
stroke from atherosclerosis
stroke from cardiogenic embolism
stroke from carotid dissection
stroke from carotid stenosis
subacute spongiform encephalopathy
subacute tonsillitis
submandibular duct stones
substance abuse
sudden infant death syndrome
sugar intolerance in pregnancy
sulfo-iduronate sulfatase deficiency
supraventricular tachycardia
swelling in the face
swimmer's ear
swimmer's ear
swollen gums
Sydenham's chorea
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
- The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a set of symptoms that are caused by cancerous tumours called gastrinomas.
syncopal episode
chlamydia infection in males
- Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, caused by the organism Chlamydia trachomatis. Sexually transmitted disease refers to any contagious disease transmitted from one person to another during sexual contact. In men, the infection normally involves the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in Australia, yet it is one of the most invisible.
systemic lupus erythematosus
talipes calcaneal valgus
talking disorders in children
Tay-Sachs disease
teenage depression
teenage pregnancy
temporal lobe epilepsy
temporal lobe seizures
temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome
temporomandibular joint syndrome
tennis elbow
tension headache
tentorial herniation
testicular cancer
testicular feminization
- Choriocarcinoma is a rare form of cancer in tissue in the reproductive system. This type of cancer usually affects women, but also includes a very rare type of testicular cancer in men.
tetrology of Fallot
thalassemia major
thalassemia minor
the bends
the clap
the clap
third-degree heart block
thoracic outlet syndrome
three-day measles
thoracic outlet syndrome
- Thoracic outlet syndrome includes those disorders that result in compression of nerves or blood vessels supplying the arms.
- A thromboembolism is a blood clot that forms and then breaks off and travels through the bloodstream to another part of the body.
time zone change syndrome
tinea pedis
tinea versicolor
TMJ syndrome
toenail conditions
toenail infection
tonsillar abscess
tooth abscess
tooth decay
torsion of the spermatic cord
torsion of the testicle
Tourette syndrome
toxemia with seizures
thyroid cancer
- The thyroid gland produces chemicals that regulate how the body uses energy. Thyroid cancer develops in the tissue of the thyroid gland. It is not very common. Death from thyroid cancer is unusual, especially in young people. Thyroid cancer is found twice as often in women.
toxic megacolon
toxic synovitis
transient ischemic attack
transient synovitis of the hip
transient tic disorder
transposition of the great arteries
transposition of the great vessels
traumatic heart disease
traveler's diarrhea
trench mouth
tricuspid insufficiency
tricuspid regurgitation
trigeminal neuralgia
trisomy 21
trophoblastic disease
true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome
tubal pregnancy
tubular pregnancy
Turner syndrome
turning in of the eyelid
type 1 diabetes mellitus
type 1 poliovirus
type 2 diabetes
type 2 diabetes mellitus
type I diabetes
type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia
type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia
type IV hyperlipoproteinemia
ulcerative colitis
ulcerative stomatitis
Ullrich-Turner syndrome
unconsciousness, first aid
uncontrollable urination
undescended testicle
unresolved grief
unstable angina pectoris
UPJ Obstruction
- Craniosynostosis is the premature closure of the spaces between the bones that make up the skull.
upper respiratory infection
ureteropelvic junction obstruction
urethral meatal stenosis
creeping eruption
- Creeping eruption is a hookworm infection of the skin. The skin is invaded by the larvae of the dog or cat hookworm. This causes a thread-like line of inflammation that moves in a "creeping" form over time.
urinary calculi
urinary tract infection
urinary tract infections in children
uterine cancer
uterine fibroids
uterine prolapse
vaginal bleeding between periods
vaginal bleeding in pregnancy
vaginal inflammation
vaginal injuries
vaginal yeast infection
- A vaginal yeast infection is caused by one of a group of fungal organisms known as Candida. These include Candida albicans,Candida tropicalis,Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis.
valley fever
variant angina
varicella zoster
vascular headaches
- Vaginismus is painful, reflex muscle spasm of the vagina and leg muscles, which occurs when sexual intercourse is tried or anticipated.
vasospastic angina
venereal disease
venereal wart infection
venous stasis dermatitis
venous thrombosis
venous varicosities
ventricular septal defect
ventricular tachycardia
verbal abuse
verruca seborrheica
vertebral compression fracture
vesicle calculi
Viking disease
- Vaginitis is an inflammation of a woman's vagina that may be due to bacteria, fungus, viruses, parasites, lack of oestrogen (female hormone) or chemicals.
viral enteritis
viral hepatitis
viral pharyngitis
viral URI
virus-induced arthritis
vision changes
visual impairment
Crohn's disease
- Crohn's disease causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is one form of a condition known as inflammatory bowel disease
vocal tics
Volkmann's ischemic contracture
Volkmann's ischemic necrosis
vulvar injuries
vulvovaginal candidiasis
walking during sleep
water diabetes
white cross
whooping cough
Wilson disease
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
wrist fracture
wrist fracture
wry neck
XXY syndrome
yeast infection of the skin and mucous membranes
yeast infection, oral
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
- A bunion is a bump, or fluid-filled sac, near the big toe joint. It may or may not involve movement of the big toe towards the second toe.
- Depression can be a temporary state or a long-term emotional disorder marked by feelings of intense sadness, loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities most of the day, nearly every day, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach. These feelings can occur at any point in life. These symptoms are not clinically described as depression, though, unless the symptoms last most of the day, nearly daily, for at least two weeks or longer. Depressive disorders take many different forms. While the symptoms are often similar, the causes and treatment may be different.
DES exposure in utero
- From the 1940s to the 1970s, diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used in some pregnant women to prevent miscarriage. Many sons and daughters of women who used DES have developed abnormalities of the reproductive organs.
diarrhea in children
- Diarrhoea is a condition involving frequent loose, watery stools.
diarrhea in infants
- Diarrhoea is a condition in which loose, watery stools are passed with greater frequency than normal.
compartment syndrome
- When pressure increases within a muscle compartment, the blood supply to the muscle is cut off and the muscle may die.
constrictive pericarditis
- The sac of fibrous tissues that surrounds the heart is called the pericardium. Constrictive pericarditis results from scarring of this lining. The scar encases the heart and may limit its ability to pump blood.
Down syndrome
- Down syndrome is the name for the pattern of physical features and disorders that usually occur from an extra chromosome twenty one. Chromosomes are the materials that store people's genetic information.
- Diverticulae are small, abnormal sacs in the wall of the intestine. These sacs can become infected and inflamed, a condition known as diverticulitis.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
- Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder of the muscles. It causes the muscles to degenerate and lose their function.
- Discitis is the infection or inflammation of the disc between 2 vertebrae.
ear foreign bodies
- An ear foreign body is anything inside of the ear canal other than earwax. Foreign bodies that are commonly found in the ear are beads, beans, cotton swabs, paper clips, bugs, insects, and small toys.
- Emphysema is a chronic disease in which the tissues of the lungs are gradually destroyed. These tissues are the walls of the alveoli, the air spaces where oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide in the blood. The ability of the lungs to provide oxygen to the body decreases. As a result, the person finds it increasingly difficult to breathe and to exercise without discomfort.
- A headache is a painful sensation in the muscles, the skin, or one of the organs in the head or near the brain.
ear wax blockage
- Ear wax blockage is a common complaint that causes no serious effects. It involves wax build up that produces a sensation of fullness in the ear, and possibly partial deafness.
valley fever
- Valley fever is an infection, usually in the lungs, caused by the fungus Coccidioides immitis. It is called valley fever because the fungus is commonly found in the soil of the valleys of the southwestern US, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America.
- Endometriosis is caused by the presence of "endometrial like" tissue within the pelvis. This is stimulated by a woman's natural hormones resulting in bleeding and scarring within the pelvis/abdomen.
emotional abuse
- Emotional abuse occurs when a person uses words or actions to make another person think less or himself or herself. It may be accompanied by physical abuse or sexual abuse.
- Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease which causes degeneration of liver cells and decreased function of the liver.
- Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. It usually follows or results from an infection.
- Endophthalmitis is an inflammation inside the eye caused by an infection. It is a serious condition that can lead to permanent loss of vision, or visual impairment.
chronic bronchitis
- Chronic bronchitis is an ongoing inflammation of the breathing tubes. It is almost always the result of long-term smoking. The official definition of chronic bronchitis requires coughing up phlegm most days for at least 3 months of the year for at least 2 years in a row.
barbiturate intoxication
- Barbiturates are drugs in a class called sedative-hypnotics. Barbiturate intoxication occurs when excessive amounts, or an overdose, of barbiturates has been taken.
- Codependency is a term for a set of problem behaviours in dysfunctional relationships. There is no common agreement about how to define this term. It is used in many different ways to describe many different experiences.
gestational diabetes
- Gestational diabetes is a resistance to insulin which develops during pregnancy and usually resolves after delivery. Glucose is the main form of sugar in the body. Gestational diabetes occurs in 4% of all pregnancies.
eustachian tube patency
- Eustachian tube patency describes a condition in which the eustachian tube is continually open. The eustachian tube is a structure in the ear that runs from behind the eardrum to the back part of the nasal cavity.
febrile seizures
- Febrile seizures are generalised (whole body) convulsions that can occur in children with fever.
fibrocystic changes in the breast
- Fibrocystic changes in the breast refer to a variety of irregularities in the breast tissue.
incompetent cervix
- An incompetent cervix is a cervix that is too weak to stay closed during pregnancy. An incompetent cervix can cause miscarriage or premature labour with delivery of a premature infant.
- Fibromyalgia is a syndrome that causes chronic pain of the muscles and skeleton. The cause is not known.
Fifth disease
- Fifth disease is a viral illness that usually affects children. It is caused by parvovirus B-19. It is usually associated with a fever and a rash.
faecal impaction
- Faecal impaction is a severe form of constipation in which a large mass of stool cannot be passed.
- Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness. It is caused by not having enough blood flow to the brain.
- Farsightedness describes a decreased ability to see things that are close to the body.
depression after heart attack
- Depression is a continuing feeling of sadness, despair or hopelessness. It affects a person's ability to function. Roughly 1 out of 4 people suffers from depression after a heart attack.
brain abscess
- A brain abscess is an area of infection within the brain.
coronary artery spasm
- The coronary arteries are a pair of blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. A spasm in these arteries known as a vasospasm reduces blood flow to the heart. This causes a chest pain called angina.
congenital lack of intrinsic factor
- Intrinsic factor is a protein made by the stomach that helps the body take in vitamin B12. Some people are born without the ability to make this protein. When this occurs, it is called a congenital lack of intrinsic factor. Congenital means that a condition is present at birth.
first aid for shock
- Shock occurs when blood flow throughout the body is decreased and the body tissues don't get enough oxygen. This lack of oxygen causes injury to many body systems. There may be brain, kidney, or heart damage; loss of a limb; and intestinal problems.
- Influenza, more commonly known as the flu, is a viral illness that affects the respiratory tract.
depression in the elderly
- Depression is a continuing feeling of sadness, despair, or hopelessness. The feelings remain and affect daily living. Depression affects 3 to 5% of people over age 65. When the person has a medical illness, such as coronary artery disease, emphysema, stroke, or cancer, the rate increases to 40%.
food allergy
- A food allergy is an immune response caused by certain foods when those foods are eaten or come into contact with the body.
dilated cardiomyopathy
- The heart is made up of muscle, valves, supporting structures, a conduction system and blood vessels. A cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle. This term is usually only used when the disease is inside the heart itself, and not due to high blood pressure, clogging of the arteries from arteriosclerosis or heart valve problems. In dilated cardiomyopathy, one of the subtypes of this disease, the heart muscle becomes thin and flabby, and the heart becomes enlarged.
herpes simplex infections
- Herpes simplex infections are caused by herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, also called HSV-1 and -2. The infections can involve the mouth, the genital region, the skin, the central nervous system, and the eyes.
food poisoning
- Food poisoning is an illness caused by eating foods contaminated with organisms that cause infections or toxins.
foreign body in the nose
- The nose can become blocked accidentally by a substance not normally found there. Such an object or material is called a foreign body.
familial combined hyperlipidaemia
- Familial combined hyperlipidaemia is an inherited disease that causes high levels of cholesterol and/or triglycerides in the blood.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a kind of cancer that occurs in a specialised white blood cell called a lymphocyte. The cancerous change occurs in the bone marrow where all blood cells are made. CLL is slow to develop and may affect a person for many years.
chronic myelogenous leukemia
- Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is a kind of cancer that occurs in a specialised white blood cell called a myelocyte. The cancerous change occurs in the bone marrow where all blood cells are made. CML develops slowly over several years.
familial hypercholesterolaemia
- Familial hypercholesterolaemia is an inherited disease that causes high cholesterol levels.
Giant Naevus
- A giant naevus is a large, pigmented, mole-like birthmark. It covers an extremely large area of the body, often in the area covered by a pair of bathing trunks. It is often covered with hair.
adolescent conduct disorder
- Adolescent conduct disorder is a type of problem with behaviour in children older than 10 years of age. A person with this disorder typically does things that are socially unacceptable. The person also constantly violates the rights of others.
- Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection marked by diarrhoea. It is caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia.
hiatal hernia
- Hiatal hernia is a condition in which the upper part of the stomach moves into the chest through a hole in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle that divides the chest cavity from the abdomen.
learning disability
- When a person has a learning disability, he or she is unable to obtain or express knowledge appropriately. Learning disabilities may also involve mental processes used in understanding or using written or spoken language.
- Menopause is the point in a woman's life when menstruation stops permanently. This means she is no longer able to have children. Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 35 and 58. It is a natural event in a woman's life. Surgical menopause occurs when a woman has both of her ovaries removed.
group A streptococcal infections
- Group A streptococcal infections include strep throat, scarlet fever, and others.
pervasive developmental disorder
- Pervasive developmental disorder, or PDD, is a set of complex disorders that affect the brain. PDDs are characterised by an intense difficulty in social interaction and communication with others.
hand, foot and mouth disease
- Hand, foot and mouth (HFM) disease is a viral infection with a characteristic rash. It usually occurs in young children.
shin splints
- Shin splints is a term used to describe pain in the lower leg.
head lice and body lice
- Lice are small, grey, bugs. Head lice attach themselves to the hair shafts. Head lice causes itching and scratch marks on the scalp. Body lice actually live in the seams of clothing, not on the skin. The lice will leave the clothing to bite the infected person. The lice leave eggs, also called nits, attached to the hair shafts.
adolescent depression
- Depression is a continuing feeling of sadness, despondency, or hopelessness. The feeling persists and affects daily living. The rate of depression among adolescents may be as high as one in eight.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare and fatal infectious disease of the brain.
- Dementia is not a disease but a result of certain diseases. It is a group of symptoms marked by the gradual loss of mental function. These functions involve thinking, recall, memory loss, reasoning, and planning.
intracerebral haemorrhage
- Intracerebral haemorrhage is a term for bleeding into the brain.
heart murmur
- A heart murmur is an extra, unexpected, or abnormal sound that is caused by the flow of blood through the heart.
- Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can affect how the liver works.
renal failure
- Acute renal failure occurs when the filtering function of the kidneys deteriorate suddenly. The kidneys are not able to maintain normal body function.
- Listeriosis (lis-ter-ee-oh-sis) is a bacterial infection that strikes humans and animals.
Parkinson's disease
- Parkinson's disease is a condition that damages the nervous system. Its main symptoms are muscle stiffness, shaking, and slowness of movement.
- A migraine is a moderate to severe headache affecting one or both sides of the head.
Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever disease
- Osgood-Schlatter disease is a condition in children that causes pain just below the knee. Sever disease is a condition in children that results in pain at the back of the heel.
- Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a painful rash of blisters that develops due to the virus that causes chickenpox.
pituitary tumour
- A pituitary tumour is an abnormal growth that develops within the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a pea-sized gland at the base of the brain. It secretes hormones into the bloodstream and controls most of the body's other hormone-secreting glands.
iron deficiency anemia
- Iron deficiency anaemia is a low red blood cell count or haemoglobin level caused by too little iron in the body.
hormonal effects in newborns
- Newborns are often born or experience a variety of normal conditions after birth. These conditions include acne, yellowing of the skin known as jaundice, darker pigmentation to the skin and temporary changes in the genitals or breasts. Many of these conditions exist because of the mother's hormones passed to the foetus just before birth or to the infant during breastfeeding.
high arches
- A foot with a very high or hollowed arch is known as pes cavus. A pes cavus foot can be rigid or flexible. A rigid cavus foot looks the same with weight off or on the foot. A flexible cavus foot has a high arch when there is no weight on the foot. The arch decreases when the person puts weight on the foot.
Hunter syndrome
- Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes a protein called mucopolysaccharide to build up in body tissues. This damages the tissues and leads to the symptoms.
- A hydrocoele is a collection of fluid around the testicle.
increased intracranial pressure
- Increased intracranial pressure means that the pressure inside the skull is abnormally high, which may cause damage to the brain.
- Hypogonadism is a condition in which the ovaries in women or the testes in men do not function properly. As a result, normal sexual development does not take place or is reversed.
hypothalamic tumour
- A hypothalamic tumour is a growth that develops inside or on top of the hypothalamus in the brain.
- Menstruation is the time during a woman's natural cycle when bleeding occurs from the vagina. Menstruation usually lasts between three and seven days.
mental retardation
- Mental retardation is defined by three criteria. The person has a score of 70 or less on intelligence tests, or IQ tests. The person has limitations in at least two aspects of living skills. Mental retardation is present from birth or infancy. Examples of living skills are: education (reading, writing, basic maths) motor function social skills communication personal care (bathing, dressing, eating, toileting) thinking skills (judgment, problem-solving, self-direction) working What is going on in the body? 
- Impetigo(im-pa-tay-go) is a bacterial infection on the surface of the skin, characterised by honey coloured crusts and mild sores.
necrotising external otitis
- Necrotising external otitis is a serious ear infection that can destroy the skin of the ear canal and progress to involve the bones of the skull.
ophthalmoplegic migraine
- Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a form of severe headache that is felt around the eye.
- Intussusception is the telescoping of one portion of the intestine into another. It generally occurs in young children.
leg pain
- Most people use the term "leg" to mean the entire area between the top of the thigh and the ankle. Pain can occur in this part of the body for many reasons.
Peyronie's disease
- In individuals with Peyronie's disease, one or more small areas of fibrous tissue develop in the penis. The disease was first described by the French surgeon Francois de la Peyronie in 1743, though there are other reports dated a century earlier.
juvenile angiofibroma
- A juvenile angiofibroma is a benign, or non-cancerous, tumour made of tissue fibres and blood vessels.
Kawasaki disease
- Kawasaki disease is a poorly understood condition that affects young children. It causes a fever and severe inflammation in different areas of the body.
- Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited condition in which the body cannot process a substance called phenylalanine. PKU is an inborn error of metabolism that can lead to severe mental retardation if it is not treated.
lead poisoning
- Lead is a metal found in the environment. If a person is exposed to large amounts of lead, poisoning may occur.
respiratory acidosis
- Acidosis describes a condition in which the amount of acid in the body is increased. When this condition is caused by not breathing well or fast enough, it is called respiratory acidosis.
short bowel syndrome
- Short bowel syndrome is a condition caused by surgery that removes part of the small intestine, such as an ileostomy.
- Mastoiditis is an inflammation within the mastoid bone, which is the bone immediately behind the ear. Mastoiditis is usually caused by an infection.
- Measles is a viral infection of the respiratory tract and the skin. It is one of the most contagious diseases known. Measles was once very common, but a vaccine has made it much more rare.
Shy-Drager syndrome
- A person with Shy-Drager syndrome has an abnormally functioning autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls many involuntary functions of the body, including blood pressure and heart rate.
meatal stenosis
- Meatal stenosis is a narrowing of the meatus, which restricts the flow of urine. The urethra is the narrow tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside. In males, the urethra ends at the tip of the penis. The opening to the outside is known as the meatus. The condition is seen mostly in young boys, but sometimes occurs in adult men.
medullary cystic disease
- Medullary cystic disease (MCD) is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys. In this condition, multiple small fluid-filled sacs, called cysts, form inside the kidneys.
meningitis in infants and children
- The meninges are the membranes that line the outer surface of the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis is an acute inflammation of these areas. It is usually caused by infection.
meningococcal infections
- Meningococcal infections are caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis.
meconium aspiration
- Before birth, a baby may breathe in amniotic fluid, which is the fluid surrounding the baby in the uterus, and meconium, a thick, sticky, greenish substance found in the foetal intestines. This is called meconium aspiration and it can lead to serious health problems.
motion sickness
- Motion sickness is the body's response to conflicting messages about motion that are sent to the brain. The conflict is between what the eyes see and what the body senses.
- Mumps is a viral infection that causes swelling of the parotid gland, a salivary gland below the angle of the lower jaw. Mumps can also affect other organs, especially in adults.
tinea versicolour
- Tinea versicolour is a skin disorder that shows up as scaling patches primarily on the chest, shoulders and back. It can make dark skin appear lighter and light skin appear brownish.
muscular dystrophy
- Muscular dystrophy describes a group of genetic muscle diseases that cause muscle weakness.
Plantar fasciitis
- Plantar fasciitis is caused by an inflammation of the plantar arch, or fascia. The condition is also called plantar fasciitis. The plantar arch is a thick membrane that covers and supports the muscles of the sole of the foot.
neonatal conjunctivitis
- Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the membranes that line the eyelid or the eye. In some cases it is caused by allergies or infections. It can also be brought on by irritants or toxins. Sometimes, another type of illness in the body can cause the problem. When the condition occurs in babies under 4 weeks old, it is called neonatal conjunctivitis.
high cholesterol
- High cholesterol is an excessive level of cholesterol in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is a more general term for high levels of different kinds of fats in the blood. These can result from a diet high in total fat, saturated fats, and cholesterol. Both conditions may also occur as inherited forms.
malignant hypertension
- Malignant hypertension refers to extremely high blood pressure that can cause injury to the eyes, heart, brain, and kidneys. This can result in permanent damage to these organs and even death.
high blood pressure
- High blood pressure, or hypertension, is defined as a systolic blood pressure reading greater than 140 or a diastolic blood pressure reading greater than 90. The systolic blood pressure is the top number of a blood pressure reading. This shows the force of the contraction of the heart and the tone or condition of the blood vessels. The diastolic blood pressure is the bottom number of a blood pressure reading. It shows the pressure in the blood vessels between heartbeats.
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition in which a portion of the heart muscle is abnormally thick. This can make it harder for blood to flow into and out of the heart and cause other problems.
hypovolaemic shock
- Shock is a condition in which the body is unable to supply enough blood and oxygen to the organs. One form of shock is caused by dehydration or heavy bleeding. This is known as hypovolaemic shock.
- Preeclampsia is high blood pressure condition that develops during pregnancy. There is also swelling of the body and protein in the urine. The condition usually occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. Preeclampsia can develop into eclampsia(seizures).
mitral regurgitation, chronic
- Chronic mitral regurgitation occurs when the mitral valve in the heart fails to close tightly. This allows some oxygen-rich blood to flow back into the heart rather than out into the body.
mitral stenosis
- Mitral stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the mitral valve, which is one of the heart valves. This "tight" valve obstructs the flow of blood within the heart.
mitral valve prolapse
- The mitral valve consists of small leaflets of tissue that separate the heart's left atrium, which receives blood from the lungs, and left ventricle, which pumps blood to the rest of the body. Mitral valve prolapse is a condition in which the mitral valve balloons back into the left atrium when the heart pumps. About 3% to 5% of the population has mitral valve prolapse. Women are affected more often than men.
- Pleurisy is inflammation of the thin lining around the lungs.
renovascular hypertension
- Renovascular hypertension is high blood pressure caused by the hardening and thickening of the arteries that supply blood to the kidney.
- Obesity is measured using body mass index or BMI. This refers to body weight relative to height. If a person's BMI is greater than 25 kg per metre squared, he or she is considered overweight. A BMI greater than 30 kg per metre squared is considered obese.
pericarditis after a heart attack
- After a heart attack, the thin lining that surrounds the heart may become inflamed or irritated. This condition is known as pericarditis.
pleural effusion
- A pleural effusion is an abnormal collection of fluid around the lungs.
oesophageal atresia
- Oesophageal atresia is a condition in which the oesophagus is not fully developed. It is a congenital condition, which means that it is present at birth.
peritonsillar abscess
- This is the name for an abscess that forms in the space around the tonsils.
patent ductus arteriosus
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the failure of a duct, or passageway, between two specific blood vessels to close. The blood vessels involved are the pulmonary artery and the aorta, two of the largest arteries in the body. It is a congenital heart disease, or a defect present at birth.
- The bacteria Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory illness characterised by severe episodes of cough.
Chinese restaurant syndrome
- Chinese restaurant syndrome (CRS) occurs in some people after they eat foods containing the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) - a common ingredient in Chinese food.
rheumatoid arthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammation that can affect many joints, and even other systems of the body.
- Leukaemia is a cancer that affects white blood cells. There are many types of leukaemia. Each one is named for the kind of white blood cell it affects. These include myelocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and other types of white blood cells.
- Petechiae are pinpoint-sized haemorrhages of small capillaries in the skin or mucous membranes.
petit mal seizure
- Petit mal seizures are a form of epilepsy, a condition that involves disturbances of brain function that result in seizures. Petit mal seizures can occur many times an hour or day and usually occur in children.
sickle cell anemia
- Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited blood disease. It causes serious health problems among African Americans or individuals of African descent and is not commonly seen in Australia. To develop sickle cell anaemia, a person must inherit two sickle cell genes. When only one gene is present, a person has another form of sickle cell disease known as sickle cell trait in which they will not get the full blown disease.
mesothelioma, malignant
- Malignant mesothelioma is a soft tissue tumour that can develop in the linings of the chest or belly.
Hirschsprung disease
- Hirschsprung disease is a blockage in the large intestine. It is caused by an lack of nerve cells in a portion of the intestine. A person is born with this condition.
- Histiocytosis refers to a group of disorders in which there is an abnormal amount of scavenger cells, called histiocytes, in the blood.
- A pheochromocytoma is a tumour which is usually found in the adrenal gland. It secretes hormones that are similar to, and often include, adrenaline. Adrenaline is also called epinephrine.
respiratory alkalosis
- Alkalosis describes a condition in which the amount of acid in the body is reduced. It may be due to breathing too fast, which is called respiratory alkalosis.
- Pica is an eating disorder in which a person repeatedly eats non-food items.
metabolic acidosis
- Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which the acid level within the blood is higher than normal. By definition, the condition is not due to breathing problems, which is known as respiratory acidosis.
- Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can be caused by many different micro-organisms, including viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi.
toenail conditions
- Toenail conditions can stem from many different sources. The most common cause of toenail problems is fungal infection. Other causes are abnormal growth, trauma, and skin conditions such as psoriasis.
oral cancer
- Oral cancer is cells that invade and destroy normal tissue cells on the lips and in the mouth and upper throat.
pulmonary atresia
- Pulmonary atresia is a serious birth defect in the heart which causes congenital heart disease.
- Pinworms are a type of roundworm that commonly infests humans, especially children.
sick sinus syndrome
- Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is a set of symptoms caused by abnormal electrical activity in a part of the heart called the sinus node.
respiratory distress syndrome in newborns
- Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a breathing problem that develops in babies born prematurely. RDS can also be caused by factors other than premature birth. These include infections and delayed clearing of foetal lung fluid.
- Porphyria is a condition that affects how haeme is made and broken down by the body. Haeme is the part of haemoglobin that carries oxygen to the cells of the body.
- A varicocoele is the enlargement of the network of veins that drain the testicle in males.
varicose veins
- Normally, tiny one-way valves inside each vein keep blood from flowing backward. When valves are damaged or do not work properly, a vein may start to bulge and twist. This is called a varicose vein.
post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
- Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is a type of kidney inflammation. It is caused by a reaction to an infection with certain strains of bacteria called Streptococcus.
sciatic nerve dysfunction
- Sciatic nerve dysfunction is a condition in which the sciatic nerve conducts impulses abnormally. The sciatic nerve is the main nerve of the leg. Abnormalities of this nerve can impair movement and/or sensation.
carcinoma in situ
- Carcinoma in situ describes a cancer in the very earliest stage. At this point, the cancer is quite small and has not invaded the tissues around it.
Reye's syndrome
- Reye's syndrome is a rare disorder that occurs after a viral infection. It results in sudden and severe decline in brain and liver function.
rheumatic fever
- This is an immune response that occurs in the body, causing inflammation and damage to certain organs, particularly the heart. It follows a streptococcal infection, such as strep throat or scarlet fever.
thoracic aortic aneurysm
- An aneurysm is an abnormal widening of a blood vessel. In this case, the blood vessel is in the aorta. This is the main blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The thoracic aorta is the part of the aorta that travels through the chest.
ruptured or perforated eardrum
- A perforated eardrum is an eardrum with a hole in it.
- Scabies is a skin infestation caused by the scabies mite. It often causes intense itchiness.
adult respiratory distress syndrome
- Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition that causes severe inflammation in the lungs. This inflammation reduces lung function and may cause lung, or respiratory, failure.
alcohol dependence
- Alcohol dependence is a chronic pattern of alcohol abuse. An alcoholic gets used to the effects of alcohol and requires more alcohol to get the desired effect. This is called tolerance. A person with alcohol dependence may experience an uncontrollable need for alcohol.
alcohol withdrawal
- Alcohol withdrawal is a set of symptoms that a person has when he or she suddenly stops drinking after using alcohol for a long time.
alcoholic liver disease
- Habitual drinking of alcohol can damage the liver. There are 3 types of damage: alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The amount of damage depends on the amount of alcohol used and how long the drinking continues. The type of alcohol is not important.
- Alopecia is the medical name for baldness or hair loss. The hair loss may be on the head or any other part of the body that normally has hair, such as the eyebrows.
- A woman who has amenorrhoea has either never had a menstrual period or has stopped having periods.
- Amoebiasis is an infection of the large intestines caused by Entamoeba histolytica, a single-celled parasite.
amphetamine addiction
- Habitual, repeated use of amphetamines results in amphetamine addiction. Repeated use causes increased tolerance to the drug. As tolerance builds, more of the drug is needed to achieve a desired effect by the user.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of the nervous system. The nerve cells, or neurons, that are located in the spinal cord and brain degenerate, or break down. The affected nerves in ALS normally give signals to muscles, so their break down causes muscles to weaken and atrophy, or shrink. Paralysis or spasticity, which is increased muscle tone that can make co-ordinated movement difficult, may also develop. There is no damage to the sensory neurones, thus there is no sensory disturbance.
analgesic nephropathy
- Analgesic nephropathy refers to kidney damage caused by regular, long-term use of analgesics. Short-term, occasional use of these medications does not seem to cause kidney damage.
anaphylactic shock
- Anaphylactic shock, or anaphylaxis, is a severe allergic reaction that affects the whole body. It can lead to death.
anorectal abscess
- An abscess is a pocket of pus inside the body. The anus and the area just above it, called the rectum, are common places for an abscess to form. An abscess in either of these areas is known as an anorectal abscess.
anorexia nervosa
- Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person refuses to maintain a healthy weight for his or her age and height. It is a self-imposed starvation resulting from a distorted body image. Anorexia nervosa occurs most often in females between the ages of 12 and 21, but may occur in older women and men.
spinal cord abscess
- A spinal cord abscess is a walled off area of infection within the spinal cord.
antisocial personality disorder
- Antisocial personality disorder is a personality disorder defined by continuous and long-term antisocial behaviour. Early childhood signs include lying, stealing, fighting, and missing school. Before age 15, disrespect for others and violation of other's rights are signs of the disorder. Problems in adolescence can be early or aggressive sexual behaviour. Also, excessive drinking and illicit drug use can occur. These problems continue into adulthood. The diagnosis is not made until the person is over 18.
anxiety disorders
- Anxiety is a vague, uncomfortable feeling of fear, dread, or danger. Anxiety disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that involve anxiety. The problem may be real or imaginary. Symptoms can vary in severity and length. There are several types of anxiety: acute situational anxiety generalised anxiety disorder panic disorder post-traumatic stress disorder phobias obsessive compulsive disordersWhat is going on in the body?
aortic dissection
- An aortic dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the wall of the aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the body and is directly attached to the heart.
aortic regurgitation
- The aortic valve is a flap-like opening located between the left side of the heart and the aorta, the main artery of the heart. This valve opens so that blood can flow out of the aorta, but closes so that blood cannot flow back in. Sometimes this valve does not close tightly and blood flows backwards into the left side of the heart. This is called aortic regurgitation (AR).
apparent life-threatening event
- An apparent life-threatening event, or ALTE, is sometimes referred to as a prolonged infant apnoea spell. It is an episode in which an infant has apnoea, or temporarily stops breathing. The episode lasts long enough to cause: colour change in the skin and lips, first bright red then blue muscle weakness and limpness choking and gaggingBabies often breathe in cycles. That is, they alternate rapid breathing with slow breathing. This can be normal. Apnoea, however, occurs when the baby has an episode of not breathing at all that lasts for more than 20 seconds.
- Appendicitis is an infection of a small section of the bowel called the appendix.
- Aspergillosis refers to any infection with a fungus called Aspergillus.
aspiration pneumonia
- Aspiration pneumonia is a lung infection that occurs when a person accidentally inhales material from the nose, throat, or stomach.
sleepwalking and children
- Sleepwalking is purposeless sitting up or walking while asleep. It is a fairly common childhood sleep disorder. A child will have no memory of the event afterward.
- Atelectasis is a condition in which part of the lung becomes airless and contracts.
atheroembolic renal disease
- Atheroembolic renal disease is one in which the kidneys fail because the arteries that supply them with oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood become blocked.
atrophic vaginitis
- Atrophic vaginitis is an irritation of the vagina that can cause dryness, a pins-and-needles sensation, or burning.
attention deficit disorder
- Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) involves a persistent pattern of inattention or impulsivity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adds a level of hyperactivity to the other symptoms of ADD. The behaviour is more frequent and severe than in other children the same age.
spina bifida
- Spina bifida is a type of birth defect that causes abnormal formation of the spinal column.
autoimmune disorders
- In an autoimmune disorder, a person's immune system begins to attack his or her own body. Examples of these disorders include: multiple sclerosis, in which the body attacks parts of the nervous system myaesthenia gravis, which causes severe muscle weakness type I diabetes rheumatoid arthritis, in which the body attacks the joints systemic lupus erythematosus, in which the body attacks connective tissue in joints and also the kidneys dermatomyositis, which affects the skin and muscles scleroderma, which involves the skin, gut, and other structures Sjogren's syndrome, which causes dry eyes and mouth Crohn's disease, which causes inflammation in the bowels ulcerative colitis, which also causes inflammation in the bowels psoriasis, which involves the skin Grave's disease, which affects the thyroid gland autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, in which the immune system destroys a person's red blood cells Overlap or mixed connective tissue disorder, involves symptoms of more than one of these disorders. There are many other examples of autoimmune disorders as well.
autoimmune hepatitis
- Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by an autoimmune disorder. An autoimmune disorder is one in which a person's immune system attacks his or her own body for unknown reasons.
autonomic hyperreflexia
- Autonomic hyperreflexia is an abnormal triggering of the autonomic nervous system that can occur after a spinal cord injury. The body is unable to turn off the nerves that cause blood pressure to rise.
end-stage renal disease
- End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which there is a permanent and almost complete loss of kidney function. The kidney functions at less than 10% of its normal capacity
- Entropion is a condition in which the eyelid margin turns in against the eyeball, or inverts. This inversion causes the eyelashes to rub against the surface of the eye.
- Enuresis is the intentional or involuntary voiding of urine into clothes or other inappropriate places by a child at least 5 years old. The frequency must be at least twice or more a week for three months. There is no physical disorder. Primary enuresis is when bladder control has never been achieved. Secondary enuresis is when bladder control has been achieved for at least one year but has been lost. Enuresis may occur only at night, only in the day or during both day and night. Night time enuresis is the most common.
epididymitis, acute
- Epididymitis is an infection of the epididymis. The epididymis is a soft, coiled tubular structure on the back of the testicle.
epididymitis, chronic
- This condition describes chronic or long-standing inflammation in the epididymis. The epididymis is a coiled, tubular structure on the back of the testicle.
- Epiglottitis is an inflammation of the epiglottis, which is part of the voice box in the throat.
- Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system in which seizures occur repeatedly. Seizures are caused by sudden, large discharges of electrical impulses from brain cells.
erectile dysfunction
- Male erectile dysfunction is a condition in which a man cannot get or keep an erection long enough to have sexual intercourse.
erythema multiforme
- Erythema multiforme is a skin reaction that results in red target-shaped patches on the skin.
essential tremor
- Essential tremor consists of fine, rhythmic, shaky movements that usually involve the hands and sometimes the head. The voice can also be affected.
- Ethmoiditis refers to inflammation of the ethmoid sinuses.
ethylene glycol intoxication
- Ethylene glycol is a common ingredient in antifreeze and windshield de-icer. If eaten or swallowed, it is poisonous. It is not a common problem in Australia.
exfoliative dermatitis
- Exfoliative dermatitis is the term for large areas of skin that are covered by a rash. It can be life-threatening in its most severe form.
flat feet
- Flat feet is a condition where more of the foot surface is in contact with the floor than normal.
foetal alcohol syndrome
- Foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a collection of growth and brain development problems in newborns. Foetal alcohol syndrome is caused by heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.
foot care for people with diabetes
- Foot problems can be directly caused by diabetes. They can also be secondary to some of the effects of diabetes on the feet. These effects most commonly include loss of circulation and loss of feeling. A person with diabetes should follow guidelines for good foot care to prevent unnecessary complications.
frozen shoulder
- Frozen shoulder usually occurs after a person injures the shoulder and does not move it for a period of time because of pain.
fungal nail infection
- A fungal nail infection is a condition in which a fungus or yeast causes a nail to become mis-shapen, discoloured, and thick.
- A furuncle is a skin infection involving the entire hair follicle and the underlying skin tissue.
gingivitis, periodontitis
gingivitis, periodontitis - Images    (Click to view larger image) - - Alternative Names  - swollen gums, gum infection, gingivostomatitis, trench mouth, pyorrhoea, bleeding gums, gum disease - What is going on in the body?  - Gingivitis...
Glandular fever
- Glandular fever is an infection marked by a sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fever and fatigue.
- Glaucoma is a condition that develops when the fluid pressure in the eye is abnormally high. This causes damage to the fibres of the optic nerve, or the nerve of vision. Some glaucoma cases may be associated with normal pressure. This condition usually occurs in older adults.
glossopharyngeal neuralgia
- Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a condition that causes sudden bouts of pain in the throat and the back of the mouth and tongue.
glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency
- Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited disease that can cause anaemia, or a low red blood cell count.
- A goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not due to cancer. The thyroid gland is located in the neck just below the Adam's apple.
gonococcal infections
- Gonococcal (gon-oh-kok-al) infections are caused by the bacteria Neisseria (nye-sear-ee-ah) gonorrhoeae (gon-oh-ree). The infection is acquired through sexual contact or is passed from mother to baby during childbirth.
gonorrhoea in females
- Gonorrhoea (gon-ah-ree-ah) is a sexually transmitted disease, caused by bacteria called Neisseria (nye-sear-ee-ah) gonorrhoea. The infection usually begins in the genital area, but may spread to the blood, bones, heart valves, and other sites.
gonorrhoea in men
- Gonorrhoea (gon-or-ee-ah) is a bacterial infection of the urethra, the tube through which urine and semen are released from a man's body. It is caused by bacteria called Neisseria (nye-sear-ee-ah) gonorrhoea. The infection usually begins in the genital area, but may spread to the blood, bones, heart valves, and other sites.
Goodpasture syndrome
- Goodpasture syndrome is a condition in which a person's own body attacks the lungs and kidneys. This may result in coughing up blood and rapid kidney failure.
- Gout is a disease caused by increased uric acid in the bloodstream. Uric acid is a chemical produced by the normal breakdown of cells. Uric acid crystals are deposited in the joints, creating arthritis.
graft versus host disease
- Graft versus host disease is a serious condition that can occur after a bone marrow transplant or blood transfusion.
group B streptococcal septicaemia of the newborn
- Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria. Septicaemia is a serious infection of the bloodstream. Newborn infants sometimes develop serious bloodstream infections with GBS bacteria.
Guillain-Barre syndrome
- Guillain-Barre is a progressive weakness of the muscles. It is related to inflamed nerves. The inflammation often follows an infection.
- Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. The lungs are the usual site of the infection.
histrionic personality disorder
- A person with histrionic personality disorder constantly seeks attention and behaves dramatically. Emotions often seem exaggerated, childish, and false. This is done to get sympathy or attention from others.
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an infection that damages the body's immune system. Over time, it leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Hodgkin's lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic tissue, which includes the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow.
hookworm infection
- A hookworm is any type of roundworm. This parasite causes intestinal infection in animals and humans. It is very common. In fact, about one-fourth of the world's population is infected with hookworms.
hospital acquired pneumonia
- Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that is picked up while a person is in the hospital.
hot tub folliculitis
- A hair follicle is a small cavity of the skin in which a hair develops. When one or more of these becomes inflamed or infected, it is called folliculitis. Hot tub folliculitis is an infection of the hair follicles that occurs after being in a hot tub.
- Spondylolisthesis means the slipping of one vertebra over the top of the one below it. The vertebrae are the box-shaped bones that make up the spine.
human papillomavirus infection in females
- Human papillomavirus, or HPV, infection is a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, caused by a group of viruses.
Huntington disease
- Huntington disease is an inherited brain disease that affects movement, thinking, and personality.
hyperactivity, adult
- Hyperactivity in adults involves excessive talking or moving. Other traits include poor concentration or impulsive acts.
hyperemesis gravidarum
- This condition is characterised by severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. It can result in serious dehydration, or low fluid levels in the body, and the disturbance of electrolyte, or mineral, levels in the blood.
hypertensive retinopathy
changes in the retina due to high blood pressure
- Hyperthyroidism is a disorder that is caused by elevated levels of thyroid hormone.
- Hypochondriasis is an abnormal fear of having a serious medical condition. This concern persists even though medical examinations rule out any actual illness.
- Hypoglycaemia is the condition that occurs when blood sugar, or glucose, levels drop below normal.
- The pituitary gland is located inside the skull. When this gland becomes less active than normal for any reason, hypopituitarism is said to occur.
- Hypothermia occurs when a person's body temperature falls below 95 degrees Fahrenheit or 35 degrees centigrade.
- Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce adequate amounts of thyroid hormone.
unstable angina
- Unstable angina is a condition more serious than stable angina and less serious than an actual heart attack. Stable angina is chest pain from a temporary decrease in oxygen to the heart that is caused by exertion and goes away with rest. A heart attack is a prolonged decrease in oxygen to the heart that results in permanent damage to the heart.
infectious myringitis
- Infectious myringitis is an infection of the inner or outer ear that causes a red, swollen eardrum.
infertility - female
- Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to become pregnant after 1 year of unprotected sex.
ingrown toenail
- An ingrown toenail is a condition in which one or more of the edges of a toenail grows into the skin of the toe.
inguinal hernia
- A hernia occurs when part of an organ is pushed through an abnormal opening in the body. Inguinal hernias, located in the groin, are the most common type of hernia.
intermittent explosive disorder
- Intermittent explosive disorder is characterised by repeated acts of violent, aggressive behaviour in otherwise normal persons. The violent or aggressive behaviour is out of proportion to the event that triggers or provokes the outburst.
interstitial cystitis
- Interstitial cystitis is a term that refers to a type of chronic inflammation of the bladder of unknown cause.
intrauterine growth retardation
- Intrauterine growth retardation, or IUGR, is a condition in which a foetus grows at a slower rate than expected.
irritable bowel syndrome
- Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a condition characterised by abdominal cramping, bloating, flatulence, and other changes in the bowels.
strep throat
- Strep throat is an infection of the pharynx caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes. The pharynx is the part of the throat between the tonsils and the larynx, or voice box.
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA, is a disease of children that can cause long-term arthritis and other problems in the body.
kidney stones
- The deposit of mineral salts in the kidneys, called calculi, can form kidney "stones." Most of the time, these are made out of calcium. These stones can pass into the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder, which is called the ureter.
Klinefelter syndrome
- Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs in males who have three or more sex chromosomes. At least two of the chromosomes must be X chromosomes, and one must be a Y chromosome. The condition causes males to have some female-like physical features.
- Kyphosis is the abnormal forward bending of the spine. In kyphosis, the curve of the spine is abnormal, forming a hump.
legionnaires' disease
- Legionnaires' disease is a mild to severe pneumonia caused by bacteria. Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease are the result of exposure to water contaminated with the bacteria. Exposure can come from shower heads, taps, drinking water, aerosol mists and cooling towers.
- Leprosy is a chronic infection involving nerves and the skin. It is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae.
- Leukoplakia is a white patch, often inside the mouth, that will not rub off.
lichen simplex chronicus
- Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin disorder characterised by an itching inflammation of the top layer of the skin.
livedo reticularis
- Livedo reticularis is a disorder in which blood vessels are constricted, or narrowed. It results in mottled discolouring on large areas of the legs or arms.
liver disease
- Liver disease is a term for a collection of conditions, diseases, and infections that affect the cells, tissues, structures, or functions of the liver.
liver spots
- Liver spots are flat brown patches of skin that occur in irregular shapes. They appear most commonly on the arms, face, and back of the hands.
- Lordosis refers to a abnormal bending of the spine. In lordosis, the curve of the spine arches forward.
loss of consciousness
- Consciousness is the state of being aware of or responsive to the environment. A person who is conscious can perceive, both physically and mentally, what is happening. For many reasons, a person can sometimes lose consciousness, or become unconscious.
low blood pressure
- Low blood pressure is a term for blood pressure that is abnormally or dangerously low.
lyme disease
- Lyme disease is a spirochete (a germ similar to a bacterium) infection that is passed to humans through tick bites.
- Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the original site to other parts of the body.
- Miscarriage is the loss of a foetus during pregnancy due to natural causes.
miscarriage, incomplete
- An incomplete miscarriage occurs when the body expels only part of the products of conception.
mitral regurgitation, acute
- Acute mitral regurgitation is a condition that affects a valve in the heart. The mitral valve does not close completely, so that blood flows in the wrong direction.
mixed tension headache
- A mixed tension migraine is a chronic, daily tension headache that occurs in addition to periodic migraine headaches.
molar pregnancy
- A molar pregnancy occurs when a foetus is not able to fully form in the uterus. Instead, the foetal tissue becomes a tumour.
molluscum contagiosum
- Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that causes smooth, waxy bumps.
morning sickness
- Morning sickness is nausea or vomiting during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. More than half of pregnant women have morning sickness during the first trimester. It usually goes away by the second trimester. When morning sickness is severe, it is called hyperemesis gravidarum.
mouth ulcer
canker sore
multiple myeloma
- Multiple myeloma occurs when a specialised white cell, known as a plasma cell, becomes cancerous.
multiple personality disorder
- Multiple personality disorder is a condition in which two or more distinct identities or personalities alternately take control in the same person. Each personality is unaware of any others.
multiple sclerosis
- Multiple sclerosis or MS is a lifelong autoimmune disorder that can cause severe disability. An autoimmune disorder is one in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own tissue. The antibodies produced in people with multiple sclerosis attack the brain and spinal cord. About 15,000 people in the Australia and 1.1 million people worldwide have MS.
Munchausen syndrome
- Munchausen syndrome is a psychiatric disorder in which a person consciously fakes the symptoms of a physical disorder for attention. The person may have many medical tests and surgical procedures.
myasthenia gravis
- Myasthenia gravis is a disease in which the body's immune system attacks the muscles and causes weakness. This disorder occurs more frequently in women than men and usually begins between the ages of 20 and 40.
- The organism Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacteria that causes infections in different parts of the body, including the respiratory system, central nervous system, and heart.
myocardial contusion
- Injuries to the chest wall can be classified into two general groups. Penetrating injuries are wounds in which the chest cavity is pierced, such as knife stabbings or gunshot wounds. Non-penetrating injuries involve crush injuries or compression of the chest. This type of injury is often a result of motor vehicle accidents or explosions. Alone or in combination, these forces can cause a contusion or bruising of heart. This can weaken the heart muscle.
- Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle from any cause.
neurogenic bladder
- Neurogenic bladder is the loss of normal bladder function caused by damage to part of the nervous system.
neuropathy secondary to drugs
- Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a condition in which there is a loss of sensation in a part of the body, associated with the use of a medication that can damage nerves.
newborn jaundice
- Jaundice is a yellowish discolouration of the skin and the whites of the eyes. It is caused by too much of a chemical called bilirubin in the blood.
- Nocardiosis is an infection caused by bacteria called Nocardia asteroides. It usually starts in the lungs and may spread to the skin and brain.
non-bacterial prostatitis
- In non-bacterial prostatitis, men have the symptoms of prostatitis, or inflammation of the prostate gland, but do not have a bacterial infection. The symptoms include difficulty with urination and pain in the groin area.
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of a type of white blood cell in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system drains fluid from tissue and returns it to the blood. It plays an important role in the body's defence against infection.
normal pressure hydrocephalus disease
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a condition in which the cerebral ventricles are enlarged. The cerebral ventricles are cavities within the brain that contain the cerebrospinal fluid.
- Bleeding from the nose, sometimes called epistaxis, is usually due to a damaged blood vessel that leaks blood. Nosebleeds can affect all ages, but are twice as common in children as in adults.
oral herpes
- Oral herpes is a common condition that shows up as blisters inside the mouth or on the lips. The cause is a virus called Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (also called HSV-1). Oral herpes is contagious. Herpes can spread to other parts of the body, such as the eyes, fingers, or genital area (external sex organs). Note: Genital herpes is usually caused by Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) but it is possible to have genital outbreaks with either strain of virus.
oral thrush
- Oral thrush, or oral Candida, is caused by a fungus or yeast named Candida. This is the same organism that causes vaginal yeast infections. The infection occurs on the moist surfaces of the tongue, palate, cheeks, and lips. Oral Candida infections are fairly common in adults. They can affect up to 5% of newborn infants as well.
- Osteomyelitis describes serious bone infections that go deep into the affected bones.
- Osteoporosis is the loss of bone density or thinning of the bones. This causes weakness, and eventually the involved bone may break.
- Inflammation of any part of the outer, middle or inner ear.
- Otosclerosis involves the formation of new bone that affects two structures within the ear, known as the cochlea and labyrinth. The cochlea is a cone-shaped tube involved in hearing, and the labyrinth is key to a person's sense of balance.
ovarian cysts
- Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or growths that form on the ovaries. The ovaries are small organs on either side of a woman's uterus that produce an egg each month, as well as the hormones oestrogen and progesterone.
placenta abruptio
- Placenta abruptio during pregnancy is a condition in which the placenta, or afterbirth, separates from the uterus before the foetus is born. The placenta is a disc-shaped organ that provides nourishment and blood to a foetus. This condition occurs in about 1 out of 75 to 90 deliveries.
placenta praevia
- When the placenta implants over or near the inner opening of the cervix, the condition is called placenta praevia. The cervix is the opening of the uterus. As the cervix dilates during labour, the abnormal location of the placenta may cause heavy vaginal bleeding and keep the baby from travelling through the birth canal.
placental insufficiency
- Placental insufficiency is the failure of the placenta to supply nutrients to the foetus and remove toxic wastes.
- Tendonitis is inflammation of a tendon. A tendon is a cord or band that connects a muscle to a bone.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
- The organism Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems.
- A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the space between the lung and the inside lining of the chest wall.
poisons, children and first aid
- Poisoning occurs when a child comes in contact with a toxic substance. Contact can mean swallowing, inhaling, touching, or injecting a toxic substance.
- Poliomyelitis, or polio, is a virus that causes a mild, flu-like illness in some people but in others leads to nerve damage and paralysis. A vaccine to prevent polio was developed in the 1950s and since then the infection has been eliminated from Australia, the US and most of Europe. The virus reproduces in the digestive system and spreads through the blood to the rest of the body. The virus is spread to others through infected faeces or by airborne particles.
polycystic kidney disease
- Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited condition that results in abnormally formed kidneys. It also causes other abnormalities throughout the body.
polycystic ovarian syndrome
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder that results in abnormal hormone levels in a woman. In a normal ovary, a single egg develops and is released during ovulation each month. A polycystic ovary will have many eggs that are never released.
polycythaemia vera
- Polycythemia vera is a blood cancer that causes red blood cells to multiply. White blood cells and platelets may also multiply.
- Polymyositis is a condition that causes inflammation and weakness in many different muscles of the body.
port wine stain
- A port wine stain is a type of birthmark. It is an irregularly shaped, reddish, flat area of blood vessels on the surface of the skin.
post polio syndrome
- Post polio syndrome (PPS) affects people who have had the poliomyelitis virus, or polio, anywhere from 10 to 40 years before. Of the 300,000 polio survivors in the US, one-quarter to one-half will have symptoms of PPS. If the initial bout with polio was severe, there is a greater chance of developing post polio syndrome. There is also a greater chance of developing more severe PPS symptoms.
- Menopause occurs in a woman's life once her menstruation has stopped permanently. Menopause is considered complete, and the woman is considered to be in postmenopause once her menstruation has stopped for one full year. This usually occurs between the ages of 35 and 58.
postpartum depression
- Postpartum depression is a severe form of the "baby blues" that commonly occurs in a woman after having a baby. It comes on within the first six weeks after childbirth. The condition can become disabling. The woman may be unable to perform the activities of daily living.
post-traumatic stress disorder
- Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that follows a traumatic event outside the range of normal experience. Such an event might involve a serious life-threatening experience, for example, or seeing a loved one killed. Symptoms of PTSD include: reliving the event feeling numb to one's surroundings startling easily having feelings of guilt developing loss of memory experiencing a variety of nerve dysfunctions that control automatic body functions, called autonomic dysfunctions and disorders of thinking, memory, or concentration, called cognitive dysfunctions experiencing feelings of dissatisfaction, depression and anxiety, called dysphoria experiencing difficulties with concentration and sleep People with PTSD have feelings of intense fear, helplessness or horror in response to a past trauma event.
postural hypotension
- Postural hypotension is low blood pressure that occurs when a person stands up. It results in decreased blood flow to the brain.
precocious puberty
- Puberty is a time when the body changes and is able to reproduce for the first time. Precocious puberty is when these changes occur earlier than normal.
premature ejaculation
- Premature ejaculation is a condition in which semen is released from the penis with little sexual excitement. Ejaculation usually occurs before or shortly after intercourse begins.
premature infant
- A premature infant is a baby who is born more than 3 weeks early. Babies who have spent less than 37 weeks completed in the womb are considered premature.
premature labour
- In most pregnancies, labour starts at about 40 weeks. Labour that starts before the end of the 37th week is considered preterm. Preterm labour can lead to preterm birth. Every year over 6% of pregnancies in Australia end in preterm birth. It is also the single largest cause of death and illness for newborn babies.
premenstrual syndrome
- Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a term used to describe the physical and emotional symptoms that many women experience before a menstrual period. The symptoms go away shortly after the period begins. PMS symptoms are a normal and healthy consequence of normal functioning of the ovaries.
- Presbyopia is an eye condition in which the lens loses the ability to focus over time. It then becomes difficult to see small objects, especially close up. This condition usually begins in people starting at about age 45. Many people find that they need reading glasses or bifocals after this age.
primary glomerulonephritis
- The filtering structures of the kidneys are called the glomeruli. Injury to these can cause protein and blood cells to leak into the urine and can impair kidney function. The condition is called primary glomerulonephritis (GN).
primary lung cancer
- Primary lung cancer is a very serious respiratory disorder that begins in the airways and air sacs of the lungs.
primary pulmonary hypertension
- Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries that lead to the lungs. If no other cause can be found, the condition is called primary pulmonary hypertension.
prostate cancer
- Prostate cancer is a tumour that grows in the prostate, the gland that releases a substance that turns semen into a liquid. Normally, the prostate is a firm, walnut-shaped gland enclosed in a capsule at the base of a man's bladder. It surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine away from the bladder to the outside of the body.
prostatitis, acute
- Acute bacterial prostatitis is a sudden severe infection of the prostate gland caused by bacteria.
- Pseudogout is a disease caused by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the joints. The crystals cause joint pain and other symptoms. Pseudogout is similar to gout, a disease in which joint pain is caused by deposits of uric acid crystals.
- Psittacosis is a lung infection caused by bacteria called Chlamydia psittaci. These bacteria are found mainly in birds, such as parrots, parakeets, pigeons, chickens, ducks, and lovebirds.
- Psoriasis (sore-eye-i-sis) is an inherited disorder of the skin, causing red, scaling patches usually on the scalp, elbows, forearms, knees and lower back. The fingernails, palms, and soles of the feet can also be involved.
psoriatic arthritis
- Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammation of the joints that occurs in some people with a chronic skin condition known as psoriasis. Psoriasis causes flare-ups of red patches on the body. This condition usually occurs between the ages of 30 and 35.
- Psychosis is a general term which refers to any significant mental disorder that has a physical or emotional source. It is a severe disturbance in which a person is unable to distinguish reality from fantasy.
PUJ Obstruction
- The renal pelvis is the structure that drains urine from the kidneys. The tube that carries the urine from the renal pelvis into the bladder is called the ureter. The narrow area where these two structures meet is called the pelvic ureteric junction (PUJ). A blockage in the PUJ can inhibit the flow of urine.
pulmonary embolism
- An embolism is any material that travels through the bloodstream and then gets stuck in a blood vessel. When an embolism occurs in the veins that lead to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary or lung embolism.
pulmonary oedema
- Pulmonary oedema is an abnormal buildup of fluid within the tissues of the lung.
- Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys or the ureters. The ureters are small tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Pyelonephritis may come on suddenly or it may be a long-term problem.
pyloric stenosis
- Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the stomach, known as the pylorus, through which food and other stomach contents enter the small intestine. This narrowing occurs in newborns and must be corrected immediately with surgery so the baby can digest milk and thrive.
pyogenic granuloma
- A pyogenic granuloma is a collection of blood vessels that grow quickly and abundantly, often at the site of an injury.
restless leg syndrome
- Restless leg syndrome involves unusual sensations in the legs that cause frequent leg movements.
restrictive cardiomyopathy
- Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the walls of the heart become thick and rigid. The heart is then not able to fill with a normal amount of blood.
retinal detachment
- The retina is the nerve layer that lines the inside of the back of the eye. It senses light and sends images on to the brain. When the retina is separated from the layer beneath the retina that gives it nourishment, called the choroids, this is called retinal detachment. The retina does not work when it is detached. This is a very serious problem and, if untreated, almost always leads to blindness.
retrograde ejaculation
- Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which semen travels back into the bladder instead of forward through the urethra.
Rh incompatibility
- Rh incompatibility is a condition that occurs when the mother of a foetus or newborn has Rh-negative blood type and the foetus or newborn has Rh-positive blood. This incompatible blood reaction may cause problems in a newborn as well as life-threatening problems for future pregnancies.
- Teething is the time in infancy and early childhood when children get their primary teeth.
- Rickettsialpox is an infection that is passed to humans by the bite of a house mouse mite.
ringing in the ears
- Ringing in the ears refers to a sound that usually only the affected person can hear. The sound is not coming from the environment. Instead it seems to be coming from the person's body or the ear itself. Other noises, such as buzzing or roaring, may also be heard.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an infection with fever and rash. It is usually transmitted from a bite of an infected tick.
- Rosacea is a chronic inflammation that occurs on the skin of the face. It usually appears between ages 30 and 50.
- Roseola is the sudden appearance of a red rash. It occurs after a fever in an otherwise healthy infant that is between the ages of 6 months and 4 years old.
roundworm infection
- A roundworm infection is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, an intestinal roundworm. It is the largest intestinal parasite in humans. An estimated 1 billion people are infected worldwide.
RSV infection
- The respiratory syncytial virus, commonly known as RSV, can cause lung infections. These infections are usually mild in healthy adults but can be serious in young children or in people with weak immune systems.
- Rubella, or German measles, is a viral infection characterised by a rash.
ruptured disc
- A ruptured disc in the back occurs when all or part of the soft, gelatinous central part of the vertebral disc is forced through the bones of the spinal column.
sinus tachycardia
- Sinus tachycardia is a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute. The electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat come from the normal "pacemaker" of the heart.
- Sinusitis is an inflammation of the linings of the sinuses and cavities of the nose.
Sjogren syndrome
- Sjogren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that causes a major decrease in lubricating fluids, such as tears and saliva. An autoimmune disorder is one in which the person's body attacks its own tissues, for unknown reasons.
skin abscess
- An abscess is a collection of pus in the soft tissue of the skin usually caused by a bacterial infection.
skin lesions
- A skin lesion is a condition in which an area of the skin has a change in appearance. It may affect one small spot of skin or the entire body.
skin tags
- A skin tag is a small, brown or flesh-coloured flap of skin that is usually narrow at its base. Skin tags may appear around the neck, under the arms, under the breasts, in groin creases and on the inside of the upper thigh area.
sleep apnoea
- Sleep apnoea is the term used for periods in which a person temporarily stops breathing while asleep.
sleep disorders
- A sleep disorder is a condition that abnormally affects the quality, duration, or behaviour of a person's sleep.
sleep walking disorder
- Sleepwalking is a disorder of sleep in which sleeping and waking states are combined. The individual partially wakes from deep sleep and carries out some type of activity. Often this is walking, but other detailed tasks may be performed.
slipped capital femoral epiphysis
- A slipped capital femoral epiphysis, or SCFE, is a slipping and displacement of the growing end of the thighbone, or femur, in the hip socket. This condition usually occurs in growing adolescents.
slow heartbeat
- A slow heartbeat, or bradycardia, is defined as a heart rate that is slower than normal. Normally, the heart beats at least 60 times per minute in adults. There are other age-related heart rates that are considered "normal" in children.
smoking cessation
nicotine cessation
solar keratosis
- Solar keratosis is a common premalignant skin lesion seen on areas of the body that have been exposed to sun. The lesions are not true deep or invasive skin cancers, but the area of skin is no longer normal. Premalignant means that the lesions have the potential to become skin cancer.
sore throat
- A sore throat is an inflammation or infection of the pharynx. The pharynx is the part of the throat between the tonsils and the larynx, or voice box.
speech disorders in children
- Speech is defined as the use of the voice to express ideas. It is the same as talking or speaking. Some children develop problems with speech.
spider angioma
- A spider angioma is a collection of tiny dilated blood vessels. The vessels usually radiate out from a central point and resemble the legs of a spider.
- Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection that causes red, tender nodules on the fingers, wrists, and arms. The lymph nodes may also become infected.
stable angina
- Stable angina is pain, pressure, tightness, discomfort, or a sense of heaviness in the chest beneath the breastbone. It is brought on by physical exertion and is relieved by rest. The discomfort or pain may also be felt in the left arm or shoulder, the neck, stomach, or the lower jaw. These are all areas of the body supplied by the same nerve that goes to the heart.
staphylococcal scalded skin
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is an infection that causes inflammation and shedding, or peeling, of the skin. Bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus cause the infection.
stasis dermatitis
- Stasis dermatitis is a red itchy rash on the lower legs. It occurs after long-term swelling of the lower leg, usually from poor blood circulation. It may be dry and scaly or weeping and crusted. Often the skin is a brownish colour.
status epilepticus
- Status epilepticus is a continuous seizure state. It occurs when a person has a continuous epileptic seizure or one seizure followed by another without the person regaining consciousness. It can occur in all types of seizures.
- Stillbirth is a term used to describe a baby that dies before delivery but after 20 weeks of pregnancy. It is slightly different than a miscarriage. Miscarriage describes a foetus that dies before 20 weeks of pregnancy.
stomach cancer
- Stomach cancer is cancer that begins in the stomach. Men are affected more than women.
- A stroke is the death of brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get enough blood and oxygen.
stroke from arteriosclerosis
- A stroke is the death of brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get enough blood and oxygen. A stroke from arteriosclerosis occurs when the arteries supplying the brain are narrowed by plaque formation on the vessel walls.
stroke from cardiogenic embolism
- A stroke is the death of brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get enough blood and oxygen. A stroke from cardiogenic embolism occurs when blood clots travel from the heart to an artery supplying the brain. In 1998 stroke was the second most common cause of death among Australians, accounting for 11,982 deaths.
stroke from carotid dissection
- A stroke is the death of brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get enough blood and oxygen. A stroke from carotid dissection occurs when one of the carotid arteries in the neck is torn, or dissected.
- A stye is a bacterial infection of the small glands near the inner corner of the eye or near the base of the eyelashes.
sudden infant death syndrome
- Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexpected death of an infant under 1 year of age. No cause for the death can be found after a thorough investigation. The investigation includes a complete autopsy, an examination of the death scene, and a review of the medical history.
- Suicide is the act of taking one's own life on purpose. Suicidal behaviour can range from thoughts of killing oneself to actually going through with the act.
swimmer's ear
- Inflammation or infection of the tissues of the canal that extends from the outer ear to the eardrum.
Sydenham's chorea
- Sydenham chorea is a type of chorea that is caused by the streptococcal bacteria. Chorea is a type of movement that results when nerve cells deteriorate in the brain. The condition is marked by involuntary movements that gradually become severe and affect all motor activities.
- Syphilis(sif-ah-lis) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Treponema (trep-ah-nee-mah) pallidum (pal-lid-um).
systemic lupus erythematosus
- Tonsillitis is an inflammation or infection of the tonsils.
tooth abscess
- When a tooth becomes infected is called an abscessed tooth. Pus collects in an area that forms in the bone at the end of the root. An abscess almost always begins in the central or pulp area of the tooth and spreads into the surrounding bone.
TORCH infections
- TORCH is an acronym for a special group of infections. These may be acquired by a woman during pregnancy. "TORCH" stands for the following infections: toxoplasma infection, also called toxoplasmosis other infections, such as hepatitis B, syphilis, and herpes zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox rubella, the virus that causes German measles cytomegalovirus, or CMV herpes simplex virus, the cause of genital herpesWhat is going on in the body?
- Torticollis is a deformity of the neck in which the muscles are spastic or shortened. Torticollis occurs in 1 out of 10,000 people. It is more common in women than men.
Tourette syndrome
- Tourette syndrome is an inherited disorder that causes a person to make involuntary movements and sounds.
toxic megabowel
- Toxic megabowel is a serious complication that can follow inflammation or infection of the large bowel. It causes marked enlargement of the bowel.
toxic shock syndrome
- Toxic shock syndrome is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder. It occurs when toxins made by certain types of bacteria are released into the bloodstream.
- Trachoma is a highly contagious infection of the eyes. Trachoma is caused by an organism called Chlamydia trachomatis.
transient ischemic attack
- A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient injury to the brain caused by a temporary interruption in its blood supply. A TIA is like a stroke, except that it lasts only a brief time.
Transient synovitis of the hip
- Transient synovitis is an inflammation within the hip joint.
transient tic disorder
- Transient tic disorders are characterised by single or many motor tics. Tics are brief, rapid, repetitive movements often resembling nervous mannerisms.
transposition of the great arteries
- Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is an abnormality of the heart vessels that is present at birth, causing congenital heart disease. This is a serious heart defect that usually requires open heart surgery for the baby to survive.
traveler's diarrhoea
- Traveler's diarrhoea refers to diarrhoeal disease caused by toxins produced by a number of different strains of Escherichia coli and other bacteria.
- Trichinosis is an infection caused by the worm, Trichinella spiralis, but does not occur in Australia.
- Trichomoniasis is a genital infection caused by the protozoa, Trichomonas vaginalis.
tricuspid regurgitation
- Tricuspid regurgitation occurs when the tricuspid valve within the heart fails to close tightly. This causes blood to flow backward.
trigeminal neuralgia
- Neuralgia is a term for pain caused by a nerve problem. Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful condition that affects the trigeminal nerve in the face, also called the fifth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensing touch, pain, pressure, and temperature in the face, jaw, gums, and forehead, and around the eyes.
- Tuberculosis is an infection caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium. It can affect any organ in the body but most commonly affects the lungs.
- Tularaemia is a bacterial infection that is transmitted to humans from an infected animal or insect.
Turner syndrome
- Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the lack of an X chromosome.
type 1 diabetes mellitus
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus, more commonly known as type 1 diabetes, is a disease in which the pancreas produces too little insulin to meet the body's needs. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate the level of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main form of sugar in the body.
type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus, more often known as type 2 diabetes, is a disease in which the cells of the body do not use insulin effectively. Insulin, a hormone produced by an organ called the pancreas, helps regulate the level of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main form of sugar in the body. There are other forms of diabetes as well.
urethral stricture
- A urethral stricture is a scar in or around the urethra, which is the tube that drains urine from the bladder. A stricture can block the flow of urine.
urinary tract infection
- Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder that can be caused by bacterial infection, bladder stones, indwelling catheters or tumours. If a bacterial infection of the bladder occurs, it can spread to the kidney, causing a kidney infection. If cystitis goes untreated, permanent damage both to the bladder and to the kidneys can result.
urinary tract infections in children
- Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the term for an infection that begins in the kidney, bladder, or urethra.
uterine fibroids
- A fibroid is a non-cancerous growth in the wall of the uterus. A fibroid can be any size from microscopic to as large as a football.
uterine prolapse
- Uterine prolapse is the "dropping" of the uterus from its normal position at the top of the vagina. It drops to a lower part of the vagina and may even drop outside the vagina. This is caused by a relaxation of the ligaments that support the uterus within the abdominal walls.
- Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels.
ventricular septal defect
- Ventricular septal defect, VSD, is a congenital defect of the heart, or one present at birth. There is an abnormal opening in the wall that separates 2 chambers of the heart.
ventricular tachycardia
- Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an abnormal heart rhythm, or irregular type of heartbeat. It is defined as three or more heartbeats in a row that come from a part of the heart known as the ventricles. This is called non-sustained VT. Sustained VT is VT that lasts longer than 30 seconds. It is life-threatening.
viral arthritis
- This condition involves arthritis, or the inflammation of a joint, caused by a virus.
vision changes
- Changes in vision can take many forms and have many causes. A person may lose vision completely, develop cloudy vision, or have poor vision only under certain conditions.
visual impairment
- Visual impairment refers to sight that has less quality, strength, or value than normal. Sight becomes weakened or damaged in some way.
- Vitiligo is a skin disorder characterised by the development of completely white patches of skin.
- Vulvodynia is the medical term for pain the in the vulva area of a women's body. The term is generally reserved for chronic pain in the vulva with no known cause.
Wilson disease
- Wilson disease is an inherited inborn error of metabolism in which the body cannot process copper.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
- Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a disturbance in the electrical pathway of the heart that may cause tachycardia, or a rapid heart rate.
- Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, also known as T. gondii.
ovarian cancer
- Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that develops in a woman's ovary. It usually occurs in women older than 50 years. Any cell in the ovary can undergo a cancerous change. The most common form of ovarian cancer comes from the outer covering of the ovary, not the eggs. Treatment for this cancer can be very successful. The survival rate of women with ovarian cancer has improved over the last several years.
upper respiratory infection
- The upper part of the respiratory system includes the ears, nose, sinuses, mouth, and throat. It also includes the main bronchi or windpipes, which are the air-carrying tubes in the chest. The upper respiratory system is the most commonly infected area in the body.
lichen planus
- Lichen planus is a skin disease that causes inflammation, itching, and skin lesions.
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